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True education is a learner’s cantered education, so as to examination system. There is no any examination system in the world which is free from all sort of drawbacks. We reduce the drawbacks in the systems and call it reform in the system. Thus, many reforms were taken place to reduce the drawbacks in the systems of examinations. Moderation system in examination is one of them.
The committee Consists of Vice-Chancellors & Controller of Examinations appointed by the Hon’ble Chancellor of the Non-Agriculture Universities in the State of Maharashtra to prepare Uniform Ordinances for the Conduct of Examination headed by Prof. Arun Nigavekar. Vice -Chancellor, University of Pune. Pune has made many recommendations to reform the examination system. Moderation system is one of them. The Committee has introduced moderation system as follows -:
“In view of the unhealthy practices and trends in the process of revaluation, each University introduce a well defined and professionally managed effective system of in-built moderation of answer books at all examinations in all faculties to avoid any injustice to students, as a substitute for revaluation.”
The Committee stressed the point of moderation in all sort of examinations but laid no confirmed rules and norms for the moderation system. It left every University to be decided on the lines of the guidelines given by the committee. It meant the committee had not given the common ordinance pertaining to the moderation system in examination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to think over the moderation system thoroughly and to lay the rules for the purpose.
Meaning of the Moderation:
Moderation means quality of being moderate. The act of moderating is being done by the moderators, presiding examiners at some University examinations. The moderation system is used in many board examinations and University examinations.
Need of Moderation:
The main objective of this system is to reduce the grievances of the learners, pertaining to their marks. In a paper carrying 100 marks, the marks can range from 0 to 100. Including 0 there are in all 101 units of measurement and hence it is called the 101-point scale. The use of this scale implies that a candidate who scores 35 marks is superior to one who scores 34 marks or who scores 40 marks is superior to one who scores 39 and so on. Such an inference could have been correct if the mark was a precisely correct evaluation of the students performance.
However, the marks given by an examiner is just an estimation of his performance as -:
(1) “This estimation may not be absolutely correct because the candidates performance which is being measured is invariably ill-defined. The mark may be a measure of the candidate’s knowledge or intelligence or power of expression or a combination of these Characteristics. Therefore, the mark assigned may vary from one examination to another.
(2) Harper and Misra’s researchs are reported in “Research on Examinations in India” published by the N.C.E.R.T. in 1976. They have found out that when a geometry teacher remarked 50 answer books, after six months of the eight who were awarded a ‘First Division the First Time’.
The Second time only 4 were awarded Division I
1 was raised to Distinction
1 was lowered to Division II
2 were lowered to Division III
Out of 10 who were awarded ‘Third Division’ in the second marking only
4 had being thirds in the first marking.
2 had been division I
1 had been division II
3 had been failed
(3) When photocopies of the same History answer scripts were sent to Nine experienced examiners, the average marks awarded to the 10 scripts ranged from 8 to 22 out of 50.
(4) As quoted in the book namely ‘Assessment and Evaluation written by Deshpande Prakash M, Pathak Anil and Upasani N.K. (1993). “Researches conducted by the U.G.C. to find out the reliability of examinations have also shown that where an examiner assigns a mark to a script there is 50% chance that his error is greater that 5%. This means that when a candidate is awarded a mark of 59 the correct evaluation mark may be either above 64 or below 54 in 50 percent of the cases. Under these circumstances, the 101 point scale where candidates are distinguished even by one mark loses all its significance”.
(5) Similarly it is observation that vary often it happens that one examiner marks his papers from high mark of 78 to a low mark of 26 while another marks his papers from 63 to 23. Such a difference is quite common, and it is really unfair to students.
(6) To overcome to all these sort of difficulties U.G.C. has suggested to follow grading system. But what is the base of grading system? Marks are the base to the grading system. Therefore, it is necessary to allot the marks precisely.
The above discussion will make it clear to us that moderation system in examination is necessary factor in the system.
Chech Points for Moderation:
Before entering the moderation system, let’s see The check points of examination system, where moderation is required.
- Passing in each head of passing namely theory, practical, oral, sessional, Internal, external etc.
- Getting higher classes.
- Getting distinction in the subject.
- Getting distinction in all subjects.
- Declaring fail.
- Declaring the rank holders.
The check points of examination system and researches quoted above will throw the light on the need of moderation in examination system.
The main purpose of the moderation is to avoid any injustice to the students, as a substitute for a revaluation.
It means -:
(1) Moderation is helpful to avoid injustice to the Students.
(2) It may be held substitute for a revaluation.
(3) It is a supersory work over the examiners.
The system of revaluation is also one of the ways to avoid injustice to the students. But the cause of revaluation doesn’t arise if the papers are assessed correctly. Therefore, the supervisory work over the examiners is very important, called moderation.
ASPECTS OF MODERATIONS
- The moderator should be a Senior one. He may be a paper setter of the particular subject.
- One moderator shall be appointed per five examiners. However, Chairman, Board of paper setters/Head of the department of the particular subject will act as a moderator, where there are less than five examiners.
- Moderation work shall be carried out simultaneously with the central assessment of answer books at CAPs.
- Every moderator is required to assess at least 30 answer books before starting moderation. For the purpose, he should check the question paper to confirm himself that the questions asked in the examinations were within the syllabus, and there were no any printing mistakes found in the question papers. Moreover, he should also check the answer key. Then find out any difficulties to check the answer books. And then only he should give guidelines to the examiners.
- 100% of moderation of the first bundle of at least 30 answer books of the examiners should be carried out by the moderators. He should note the observations of him and communicate the same to the examiners.
- As it has been mentioned earlier, the purpose of moderation is to just to the students and to control over the assessment work of the examiners, moderation work should be done as –
(a) Hundred percent (100%) moderation of the answer book shall be carried out in case of candidates failing by 10% of marks of the aggregate marks of that paper.
(b) Hundred percent (100%) moderation shall be carried out in case of candidates obtaining 70% and above marks of the aggregate marks of that paper.
(c) The moderation of answer books up to 5% of the total number of candidates obtaining marks between 40% and 70% shall be carried out on a random sample basis.
(d) The moderation of answer books up to 5% of the total number of candidates who failed in that paper shall be carried out on a random sample basis.
(e) 100% moderation work should be intensively carried out in case of candidates who are securing higher classes, distinction and who rank holders.
7.Masking system in assessing the answer books always helps the moderator to control over the assessing work of the examiners.
8.Assessment work by two examiners is one of the best ways to give just to the students. Difference between the two examiners may vary from 1 to 10 marks. But more than 10 marks requires a moderator.
9.Where marks awarded by the moderator vary from those awarded by original examiner, the marks awarded by the moderator shall be taken as final.
10. It the assessment work is done by two examiners, and the moderators, the marks of the moderators and the marks of one of the examiners whose marks are nearest to the marks of the moderator will be taken into consideration. And average of the both marks will be calculated and it will be the marks of the students to that paper.
If moderation system is properly carried out, it will be beneficial to improve the system of examinations, and will become a substitute to the revaluation system, and assessment system will be a just to the students.
At present, task-based syllabuses have not been widely implemented in language teaching. The problems are: the definition of tasks are so broad as to include almost anything that involves learners doing something, procedures for the design and selection of tasks remain unclear, and the excessive use of communicative tasks may encourage fluency at the expense of accuracy (Richard 2001:163).
In Indonesia, related to the implementation of Curriculum 2006 (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan), task-based learning can be regarded as one particular approach to implementing the broader “communicative approach”. The aim of task-based learning is to develop student’s ability in communication.
The task-based syllabus is known based on work by Krahnke (1981,1982), Candlin and Murphy (1986), and Johnson (1982). The defining characteristic of task-based content is that it uses activities that the learners have to do for noninstructional purposes outside of the classroom as opportunities for language learning. Tasks are distinct from other activities to the degree that they have a noninstructional purpose and measurable outcome. Tasks are way of bringing the real world into the classroom (Krahnke,1987).
There have been a lot of researchers and theories in the last twenty years on the use of tasks in language teaching, particularly tasks which involve interaction between learners (e.g., Breen, 1987; Prabhu, 1987; Nunan 1989).
As Willis (2004) points out, a number of crucial research findings change the course of EFL language teaching pedagogy in the 20th century. Due to the research findings, Finch (2006) concludes that as follows:
- Language learning, even in a classroom setting, seems to develop independently of instruction,
- Learners acquire language according to their own inbuilt internal syllabus regardless of the order in which they are exposed to particular structure and regardless of mother tongue influences,
- Teaching does not and cannot determine the way that the learner’s language will develop (citing Skehan, 1996),
- Learners do not necessary learn what teachers teach (citing Allwright, 1984),
- Learner do not first acquire language as a structural system and then learn how to use this system I communication, but rather actually discover the system itself in the process of learning how to communicate (citing Ellis, 2003, p.14)
In addition to the findings, psycho-linguistic and socio-linguistic researchs have shown that:
- Motivation is one of the key issues in language learning and that skills to motivate learners are crucial for language teachers (Dornyei, 2001, p. 1 citing in Finch, 2006),
- Collaboration is more effective than competition as a means of promoting effective learning (Kohn, 1992 citing in Finch 2006)
- Learners learn more in groups than individually, since cooperative social interaction produces new, elaborate, advanced psychological processes that are unavailable to the organism working in isolation (Vygotsky, 1989, p. 61 citing in Finch 2006).
This paper covers (1) the definition of task, (2) task components, (3) the characteristics of task-based syllabus (4) A framework for task-based course design, (5) Classifying tasks, (6) The thematic content of tasks, (7) Sequencing tasks, and (8) Constructing a task-based syllabus.
B. The Content
- The definition of task
Let us see some definition from some experts in task-based learning and teaching.
According to Long (1985):
A task is ‘a piece of work undertaken for oneself or others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a fair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, finding a street destination, and helping someone across a road. In other words, by “task” is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. “Tasks” are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists’.
According to Nunan (1989):
A communicative task is ‘a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. The task should also have a sense of completeness, being able to stand alone as a communicative act in its own right’.
And according to Bygate, Skehan, and Swain (2001):
‘A task is an activity which requires learners to use language, with emphasis on meaning, to attain an object’.
1. Task Components
The definition of a language learning task requires specification of four components: the goals, the input (linguistic or otherwise), the activities derived from this input, and finally the roles implied for teacher and learners (Nunan 1989, p. 47).
Candlin (1987) cited in Nunan 1990:47) suggests that tasks should contain input, roles, settings, actions, monitoring, outcomes and feedback. Input refers to the data presented for learners to work on. Roles specify the relationship between participants in a task. Setting refers to the classroom and out-of-class arrangements entailed in the task. Actions are the procedures and sub-tasks to be performed by the learners. Outcomes are the goal of the task, and feedback refers to evaluation of the task.
Shavelson and Stern (1981) cited in Nunan 1990), who are concerned with general educational planning rather than TESOL planning in particular, suggest that task design should take into consideration the following elements:
– Content – the subject matter to be taught
– Materials – the things that learners can observe/manipulate
– Activities – the things the learners and teacher will be doing during the lesson
– Goals – the teacher’s general aim for the task (these are much more general and vague than objectives)
– Students – their abilities, needs and interests are important
– Social community – the class as a whole and it s sense of ‘groupness’
(Shavelson and stern 1981: 478)
Wright (1987 in Nunan 1990) suggests that tasks need minimally contain just two elements. These are input data which may be provided by materials, teachers or learners and initiating question which instructs learners on what to do with the data.
1. The characteristic of task-based syllabus
Looking at the characteristic of task-based syllabus, there are positive and negative characteristic. Positive characteristic: (1) task-based instruction is potentially very powerful and widely applicable, (2) suitable for learners of all ages and backgrounds, (3) addresses the crucial problem-directly, by using active and real tasks as learning activities, (4) ability to perform the instructional task is equivalent to the ability to use the language, so functional ability should be a natural outcome of the instructional experience, (5) task-based learning can be very effective when the learners are engaged in relatively similar out-of-class activities (social or academic), (6) task-based learning can be especially useful for learners who are not accustomed to more traditional type of classroom learning or who need to learn cognitive, cultural, and life skills along with the language.
While the negative characteristics are: (1) problems can easily arise with teachers, the instructional setting, or the students, (2) task-based learning requires resources beyond the text books, (3) because TBL is not what many students expected and want from a language, they may resist or object to this type of instruction, (4) evaluation of TBL can be difficult, however, it is easy to measure the language proficiency.
- A framework for task-based course design
The construction of a task-based syllabus requires a specification of the tasks to be included in the syllabus. To achieve this it is helpful to classify tasks in terms of their type, to determine their thematic content and then to sequence them using appropriate criteria for grading their level of difficulty for the learner. This will suffice in the preparation of a task-based syllabus consisting entirely of linguistically unfocused tasks. However, an optional element in the framework is a specification of the features of language, i.e. the forms and functions of language, to be incorporated into the design of the syllabus.
- Classifying tasks
Task classification is important for a number of reasons. First, it provides a basis for ensuring variety; syllabus designer can refer to the classification to ensure that they incorporate a range of task types into the course. Second, it can be used to identify the task types that match the specific needs or preferences of particular groups of learners. Third, it affords teachers a framework for experimenting with tasks in their classroom; they can systematically try out the different types of tasks to discover which tasks work for their students.
Willis (1996) offers a somewhat different pedagogic classification of tasks based on an analysis of the kinds of tasks commonly found in text book materials. The types reflect the kind of operations learners are required to carry out in performing tasks:
- Listing, i.e. where the completed outcome is a list
- Ordering and sorting, i.e. tasks that involve sequencing, ranking, categorizing or classifying items.
- Comparing, i.e. tasks that involve finding differences or similarities in information.
- Problem-solving, i.e. tasks that demand intellectual activity as in puzzles or logic problems.
- Sharing personal experiences, i.e. tasks that allow learners to talk freely about themselves and share experiences.
- Creative tasks, i.e. projects, often involving several stages that can incorporate the various types of tasks above and can include the need to carry out some research.
Willis acknowledges that this classification is not exhaustive but argues that it will help to generate a variety of actual tasks.
A rhetorical classification of tasks draws on theories of rhetoric that distinguish different discourse domain in terms of their structure and linguistic properties-narrative, instruction, description, reports, etc. Such a classification often underlies language courses for academic purposes (for example, Arnaudet 1984) and is often linked to the specific language functions that figure in academic written discourse, for example, definitions, classifications, giving examples. One advantage of adopting a rhetorical classification is that discourse domain has been shown to be a factor that influences both the negotiation of meaning and the quality of learner production. Another advantage is that it lends itself to the design of specific purpose courses, as learners’ needs can often be readily specified in terms of the specific domains they need to master.
An alternative, more theoretically satisfying approach to classifying tasks rhetorically is to utilize the concept of genre, defined by Swales (1990 in Ellis 2003:212) as ‘a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes’. Exemplars of a given genre not just a given structure and style but a communicative purpose. However, they can be more or less prototypical of genre. Examples of genres are recipes, political speeches, job application letters, good/bad news, medical consultations and radio-telephonic flight control messages. Swales shows how genre analysis can be used effectively to describe the types of discourse found in academic settings and provides an extended account of one such genre-the research article. He suggests that the ideal pedagogic vehicle for teaching genres is ‘task’.
A cognitive approach to classifying tasks is based the kind of cognitive operations different types of tasks involve. Prabhu (1982) distinguishes three general types of tasks based on the kind of cognitive activity involved:
- Information-gap activity involves ‘a transfer of given information from one person to another-or from one form to another, or from one place to another-generally calling for the encoding or decoding of information from or into language.
- Reasoning-gap activity involves ‘driving some new information from given information through process of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationships or patterns’.
- Opening-gap activity involves ‘identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation’.
A psycholinguistic classification of tasks sets out to establish a typology of tasks in relation to their potential for language learning. The system is ‘psycholinguistic’ in the sense that is based on interactional categories that have been shown to affect the opportunities learners have to comprehend input, obtain feedback, and to modify their own output. The categories are:
- Interactant relationship: this concerns who holds the information to be exchanged and who requests it and supplies it in order to achieve the task goals. It relates to the distinction between one-way and two-way tasks. This category is derived from research that indicates that when there is a mutual relationship of request and suppliance, negotiation, of meaning is more likely to occur.
- Interaction requirement: this concerns whether the task requires participants to request and supply information or whether this is optional.
- Goal orientation: this concerns whether the task requires the participants to agree on a single outcome or allows them to disagree.
- Outcome options: this refers to the scope of the task outcomes available to the participants in meeting the task goals.
A General framework
From the above account of task classification, it is clear that there is currently no accepted single typology of tasks nor is there any consensus regarding the choice of organizing principle for constructing such a typology. At best then, task classification can be informed by a general framework based on a number of key dimensions of tasks. The following figure is an attempt at such a general framework. It draws on rhetorical, cognitive, and psycholinguistic typologies described above.
The thematic content of tasks
In Estaire and Zanon’s (1994) framework for developing a task-based unit of work, for example, ‘select theme or interest area’ is the starting point. Similarly, a key element in the preparation of the ‘final task’ of a unit is determining the ‘thematic aspects’ of the task.
The choice of theme will depend to a considerable extent on whether the pedagogic purpose of the task-based course is general proficiency or some specific use of the L2. In the case of the former, the guiding principles in the selection of content for task will be (1) topic familiarity and (2) intrinsic interest (3) topic relevancy by predicting the general situations that learners may later find themselves in.
Estaire and Zanon (1994) provide a ‘theme generator’. This is organized in terms of thematic areas that are close or remote to the learner. Estaire and Zanon offer a number of specific topics for each thematic area based on suggestions made by teachers they have worked with. For example, topics relating to ‘students’ include ‘birthdays’, ‘eating habits’, and ‘how the body works’. Of course, the themes/topics chosen for a particular group of learners will depend on both the students’ level of proficiency, i.e. close topics being more suitable for beginner learners and remote topics for more advance learners, and also on local cultural values and interests.
2. Sequencing tasks
The design of a syllabus requires the content be sequenced so as to facilitate maximum learning. In effect, this requires determining the complexity of individual tasks so that tasks can be matched to learners’ level of development.
Sequencing tasks faces several problems in particular grading criteria to be used. Widdowson (1990) notes that we do not possesses a sufficiently well-defined model of cognitive complexity to establish such criteria and concludes that task-based syllabuses thus face exactly the same problem as linguistic syllabuses-they cannot be modeled on the sequence of language acquisition.
There are three sets of factors which learners are able to perform different tasks. First, task complexity, as Robinson (2001: 29) comments:
Task complexity is the result of the attentional memory, reasoning, and other information processing demands imposed by the structure of the task on the language learner. These differences in information processing demands, resulting from design characteristics, are relatively fixed and invariant.
Task complexity can account for intra-learner variability, i.e. the variability evident when the same learner performs different tasks.
Second, task difficulty, Robinson identifies factors relating to learners as individuals, which can influence how easy or difficult a particular task is for different participants. Task difficulty accounts for inter-learner variability. And finally, the methodological procedures used to teach a task. These procedures can increase or ease the processing burden placed on the learner. They include the use of pre-task activity, for example, pre teaching the vocabulary needed to perform the task or carrying out a task similar to the main task with the assistance of the teacher, and planning time, i.e. giving students the opportunity to plan before they undertake task.
Factors relating to input
With regard to input medium, information that is presented in written or pictorial form, which can be decoded in the learner’s own time, is likely to be easier to process than information that is provided orally, which requires online decoding. However, the validity of this claim will depend on the learner’s level of proficiency in the L2. Prabhu (1987 in Ellis 2003: 222) notes that the students in the Communicational Teaching Project (beginner learners in Indian secondary schools) found tasks with an oral input easier than tasks presented in writing. It can also be surmised that pictorial input will be easier than verbal input as it makes no demands on the learners’ linguistic resources. Tasks involving pictures and diagrams frequently figure in courses designed for learners of limited proficiency (for example, Prabhu 1987).
The code complexity of the input, i.e. its lexical and syntactical complexity, is also likely to influence the learner’s ability to comprehend. Input texts with high frequency vocabulary and a low level of subordination are easier to understand than texts with low frequency vocabulary and complex sentence structure.
Cognitive complexity is as important as code complexity. This concerns the cognitive demands of processing the informational content of the input material. Brown et al. (1984) suggest that it involves two dimensions. First, there is the information type. This can be ‘static’ task, i.e. the information contains changing events and activities as in a video story, or ‘abstract’, i.e. tasks that present information that has to be used to form an opinion or justify a position. The second dimension referred to by Brown et al. concerns the amount of information to be processed-the number of different elements or relationships involved.
Robinson (1995) bases his claim that context-free input is more complex on the results of L1 and L2 studies that show ‘there and then’ reference to be developmentally later. Nunan (1989) also notes that texts supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and graphs are easier to understand.
Familiarity of information
‘familiarity of information’ relates to ‘task difficulty’ as much as to ‘task complexity’, as it concerns the relationship between the theme of the task and individual learner’s world knowledge. Prabhu (1987: 88 in Ellis 2003: 223) comments that ‘learners’ knowledge of the world can make tasks more or less difficult for them, depending on whether they are more or less familiar with purposes and constraints of the kind involved in the tasks’.
Factors relating to task conditions
Condition influencing the negotiation of meaning
Markee (1997: 98 in Ellis 2003: 224) notes that ‘some tasks are psycholinguistically more difficult to complete than others’. He bases this claims that indicates that one-way tasks promote less negotiation of meaning than two-way tasks.
One condition that has received some attention is task demands, specifically whether the task imposes a single or a dual demand.
Skehan (2001) proposes that dialogic tasks promote greater accuracy and complexity and monologic tasks greater fluency.
Factors relating to the process of performing a task
Of the three types of tasks that Prabhu (1987) describes that information-gap tasks proved the easiest and opinion-gap tasks the most difficult, with reasoning-gap tasks intermediate. In the case of reasoning tasks, Prabhu identifies the reasoning needed as a key factor determining complexity:
The ‘distance’ between the information provided and the information arrived at as outcome, i.e. the number of steps involved in the deduction, inference, or calculation, is a measure of relative difficulty of tasks.
Factors relating to task outcomes
Medium of the outcome
The medium of outcome is a potential factor influencing task complexity. Pictorial and written products may prove easier than oral products, especially if the latter involve a presentation of some kind. This will depend on the difficulty individual learners experience with the different media.
The scope of the outcome
There is no literature on the relative complexity of tasks with closed and open outcomes. Intuitively, tasks with closed outcomes will be easier in that the participants know there is a ‘right’ answer and thus can direct their efforts more purposefully, and perhaps more economically.
The discourse domain of the outcome
The degree of complexity of these discourse domains depend on the level of detail required in the product. Instructions, for example, can be more or less complex depending on the number and content of the specific directives.
Complexity of the outcome
Skehan (2001: 173) identifies complexity of outcome as an important factor in decision making tasks. He comments:
Some tasks require only straightforward outcomes, in which a simple decision has to be made. Others require multi-faceted judgements, in which the case or position a learners argues during a task can only be effective if it anticipates other possible outcomes, and other learners contributions.
The nature of the outcome impacts on the task performance, affecting the complexity of arguments that need to be made.
3. Constructing a task-based syllabus
The planning the task-based syllabus needs the following procedures:
- The starting points is the determination of the goal(s) of the course in terms of its pedagogic focus (general or specific purpose), skill focus (listening, speaking, reading, writing, learner training) and language focus (unfocused or focused)
- The designer then needs to make a broad choice of task types and specify the particular themes the tasks will deal with. The result of this stage is a list of tasks organized by theme and specified in terms of the general activity that the learners will be required to undertake.
- The third step would be to specify the nature of the tasks to be used in detail by selecting options relating to input, conditions, process, and outcomes. The selection would need to be motivated both by a consideration of the psycholinguistic value of the different options and by practical considerations relating to the specific teaching context.
- Finally, the tasks need to be sequenced.
C. Some related information from other resources
The followings are some research of the implementations of task-based.
Carless, D.R (2003), “Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary schools”. His qualitative case study explains that within the Asia Pasific region, a number of attempts to introduce communicative or task-based approaches have often proven problematic, in South Korea (Li, 1998); in Hong Kong (Carless, 1999; Evans, 1996); in Japan (Browne and Wada, 1998; Gorsuch, 2001); in China (Hui, 1997; Liao, 2000); in Vietnam (Ellis, 1996; Kramsch and Sulivan, 1996); and Indonesia (Tomlinson, 1990).
Factors in implementation of task-based teachings are teachers’ understandings of tasks, their attitudes, the classroom time available for task-based teaching, teacher preparation of resources, influence of textbook and topics, and the language proficiency of pupils.
Bruton, A. (2006) “Description or Prescription for Task-Based Instruction? A Reply to Littlewood”. Bruton analyzed the Lttlewood (2004) proposal on the task-based approach. Liitlewood offers two dimensions, task involvement and task focus, on which to place activities in the classroom activities.
Finch, A. (2006) “Task-based supplementation: Achieving high school textbook goals through form-focused interaction”. The research showed that meaningful learning could occur, and could be perceived (by the students) to occur. The interactive format of the task-based supplementary activities, students became involved in the learning process, and benefited from an improved awareness of what they were learning and why they were learning it.
Cheng-jun W. (2006) “”Designing Communicative Task for College English Course”. Cheng-jun concluded that the communicative tasks design has been proved to be effective in teaching a foreign language in promoting the learners competence in using the language to do things they need to do. Communicative tasks design offers a change from the traditional teaching routines through which many learners have previously failed to communicative.
Task-based syllabus is a set of planning or set of instructional materials based the aims that have been established for a language program. Task-based syllabus can be used in teaching or learning the communicative purposes. It is organized around tasks that students will complete in the target language. A task is an activity or goal that is carried out using language such as finding a solution to a puzzle, reading a map and giving directions, or reading a set of instructions and assembling a toy (Richard 2001: 161).
A task-based syllabus, however, is one based on tasks that have been specially designed to facilitate second language learning and one in each tasks or activities are the basic unit of syllabus design. A number of second language acquisition theorists have proposed tasks as a basis for syllabus planning. Long and Crookes (1991, 43 in Richard 2001) claim that tasks: “provide a vehicle for the presentation of appropriate target language samples to learners – input which they will inevitably reshape via application of general cognitive processing capacities – and for the delivery of comprehension and production opportunities of negotiable difficulty.”
Khranke, K. 1987 Approaches to Syllabus Design for Foreign Language Teaching, New Jersy, USA.: Prentice Hall, Inc,
Nunan, D. (1989) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridg University Press.
Richard, J.C. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge Language Education.
Allen, E.D. andValette, R.M. 1972. Classroom Techniques: Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Richard, J.C. and Renandya, W.A. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. 1988. The Learner-Centered Curriculum; A study in second language teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richard, J.C. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. 1997. Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kumpulan permendiknas tentang SNP dan panduan KTSP, 2008.
GBPP Kurikulum 1994, Depdiknas, Jakarta.
Homework: every student has it, and most students despise it. But why is homework important? How does it benefit students?
Many may think that homework is given simply because teachers overload their lesson plans with too much material, and not enough time. Whatever isn’t covered in class gets sent home for students to complete independently. However, homework is one of the most important components of education. Its purpose is not to overload students with assignments after a full day of school. Homework is meant to supplement the material learned in class, and enhances students’ understanding of topics.
Homework gives students the opportunity to not only practice ideas covered in school, but the opportunity to master these concepts as well. In order to become proficient, students must be capable of completing work independently. By doing it at home, students are able to review and practice material taught in class. They learn how to apply functions and abilities without the overshadowing of an instructor. By doing work independently, students are driven to find answers to questions they may have and develop answers through trial and error.
Doing school work at home provides students with the opportunity to use external resources to gather information. Taking advantage of libraries, the internet, and other sources of reference material enables students to broaden their investigative abilities. These resources aid students in exercising their researching skills and prepares them for future academic quests.
Homework is also a chance for parents to be involved in their student’s academics. When children bring school work home, it incidentally exposes parents to the school curriculum. Children may refer to their parents if they have a question about their homework, thus engaging parents. The more parents are involved in education, the more value children place on its importance.
Students develop positive study skills and habits through homework. They must be self-sufficient in order to complete necessary tasks. Their academic grade depends on the quality of their work, and it’s essential for students to understand the impact homework has on their grades. By developing consistent time management skills, students are capable of effectively utilizing their schedule. This allows them to establish competent habits in order to complete assignments.
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