True education is a learner’s cantered education, so as to examination system. There is no any examination system in the world which is free from all sort of drawbacks. We reduce the drawbacks in the systems and call it reform in the system. Thus, many reforms were taken place to reduce the drawbacks in the systems of examinations. Moderation system in examination is one of them.
The committee Consists of Vice-Chancellors & Controller of Examinations appointed by the Hon’ble Chancellor of the Non-Agriculture Universities in the State of Maharashtra to prepare Uniform Ordinances for the Conduct of Examination headed by Prof. Arun Nigavekar. Vice -Chancellor, University of Pune. Pune has made many recommendations to reform the examination system. Moderation system is one of them. The Committee has introduced moderation system as follows -:
“In view of the unhealthy practices and trends in the process of revaluation, each University introduce a well defined and professionally managed effective system of in-built moderation of answer books at all examinations in all faculties to avoid any injustice to students, as a substitute for revaluation.”
The Committee stressed the point of moderation in all sort of examinations but laid no confirmed rules and norms for the moderation system. It left every University to be decided on the lines of the guidelines given by the committee. It meant the committee had not given the common ordinance pertaining to the moderation system in examination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to think over the moderation system thoroughly and to lay the rules for the purpose.
Meaning of the Moderation:
Moderation means quality of being moderate. The act of moderating is being done by the moderators, presiding examiners at some University examinations. The moderation system is used in many board examinations and University examinations.
Need of Moderation:
The main objective of this system is to reduce the grievances of the learners, pertaining to their marks. In a paper carrying 100 marks, the marks can range from 0 to 100. Including 0 there are in all 101 units of measurement and hence it is called the 101-point scale. The use of this scale implies that a candidate who scores 35 marks is superior to one who scores 34 marks or who scores 40 marks is superior to one who scores 39 and so on. Such an inference could have been correct if the mark was a precisely correct evaluation of the students performance.
However, the marks given by an examiner is just an estimation of his performance as -:
(1) “This estimation may not be absolutely correct because the candidates performance which is being measured is invariably ill-defined. The mark may be a measure of the candidate’s knowledge or intelligence or power of expression or a combination of these Characteristics. Therefore, the mark assigned may vary from one examination to another.
(2) Harper and Misra’s researchs are reported in “Research on Examinations in India” published by the N.C.E.R.T. in 1976. They have found out that when a geometry teacher remarked 50 answer books, after six months of the eight who were awarded a ‘First Division the First Time’.
The Second time only 4 were awarded Division I
1 was raised to Distinction
1 was lowered to Division II
2 were lowered to Division III
Out of 10 who were awarded ‘Third Division’ in the second marking only
4 had being thirds in the first marking.
2 had been division I
1 had been division II
3 had been failed
(3) When photocopies of the same History answer scripts were sent to Nine experienced examiners, the average marks awarded to the 10 scripts ranged from 8 to 22 out of 50.
(4) As quoted in the book namely ‘Assessment and Evaluation written by Deshpande Prakash M, Pathak Anil and Upasani N.K. (1993). “Researches conducted by the U.G.C. to find out the reliability of examinations have also shown that where an examiner assigns a mark to a script there is 50% chance that his error is greater that 5%. This means that when a candidate is awarded a mark of 59 the correct evaluation mark may be either above 64 or below 54 in 50 percent of the cases. Under these circumstances, the 101 point scale where candidates are distinguished even by one mark loses all its significance”.
(5) Similarly it is observation that vary often it happens that one examiner marks his papers from high mark of 78 to a low mark of 26 while another marks his papers from 63 to 23. Such a difference is quite common, and it is really unfair to students.
(6) To overcome to all these sort of difficulties U.G.C. has suggested to follow grading system. But what is the base of grading system? Marks are the base to the grading system. Therefore, it is necessary to allot the marks precisely.
The above discussion will make it clear to us that moderation system in examination is necessary factor in the system.
Chech Points for Moderation:
Before entering the moderation system, let’s see The check points of examination system, where moderation is required.
- Passing in each head of passing namely theory, practical, oral, sessional, Internal, external etc.
- Getting higher classes.
- Getting distinction in the subject.
- Getting distinction in all subjects.
- Declaring fail.
- Declaring the rank holders.
The check points of examination system and researches quoted above will throw the light on the need of moderation in examination system.
The main purpose of the moderation is to avoid any injustice to the students, as a substitute for a revaluation.
It means -:
(1) Moderation is helpful to avoid injustice to the Students.
(2) It may be held substitute for a revaluation.
(3) It is a supersory work over the examiners.
The system of revaluation is also one of the ways to avoid injustice to the students. But the cause of revaluation doesn’t arise if the papers are assessed correctly. Therefore, the supervisory work over the examiners is very important, called moderation.
ASPECTS OF MODERATIONS
- The moderator should be a Senior one. He may be a paper setter of the particular subject.
- One moderator shall be appointed per five examiners. However, Chairman, Board of paper setters/Head of the department of the particular subject will act as a moderator, where there are less than five examiners.
- Moderation work shall be carried out simultaneously with the central assessment of answer books at CAPs.
- Every moderator is required to assess at least 30 answer books before starting moderation. For the purpose, he should check the question paper to confirm himself that the questions asked in the examinations were within the syllabus, and there were no any printing mistakes found in the question papers. Moreover, he should also check the answer key. Then find out any difficulties to check the answer books. And then only he should give guidelines to the examiners.
- 100% of moderation of the first bundle of at least 30 answer books of the examiners should be carried out by the moderators. He should note the observations of him and communicate the same to the examiners.
- As it has been mentioned earlier, the purpose of moderation is to just to the students and to control over the assessment work of the examiners, moderation work should be done as –
(a) Hundred percent (100%) moderation of the answer book shall be carried out in case of candidates failing by 10% of marks of the aggregate marks of that paper.
(b) Hundred percent (100%) moderation shall be carried out in case of candidates obtaining 70% and above marks of the aggregate marks of that paper.
(c) The moderation of answer books up to 5% of the total number of candidates obtaining marks between 40% and 70% shall be carried out on a random sample basis.
(d) The moderation of answer books up to 5% of the total number of candidates who failed in that paper shall be carried out on a random sample basis.
(e) 100% moderation work should be intensively carried out in case of candidates who are securing higher classes, distinction and who rank holders.
7.Masking system in assessing the answer books always helps the moderator to control over the assessing work of the examiners.
8.Assessment work by two examiners is one of the best ways to give just to the students. Difference between the two examiners may vary from 1 to 10 marks. But more than 10 marks requires a moderator.
9.Where marks awarded by the moderator vary from those awarded by original examiner, the marks awarded by the moderator shall be taken as final.
10. It the assessment work is done by two examiners, and the moderators, the marks of the moderators and the marks of one of the examiners whose marks are nearest to the marks of the moderator will be taken into consideration. And average of the both marks will be calculated and it will be the marks of the students to that paper.
If moderation system is properly carried out, it will be beneficial to improve the system of examinations, and will become a substitute to the revaluation system, and assessment system will be a just to the students.
At present, task-based syllabuses have not been widely implemented in language teaching. The problems are: the definition of tasks are so broad as to include almost anything that involves learners doing something, procedures for the design and selection of tasks remain unclear, and the excessive use of communicative tasks may encourage fluency at the expense of accuracy (Richard 2001:163).
In Indonesia, related to the implementation of Curriculum 2006 (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan), task-based learning can be regarded as one particular approach to implementing the broader “communicative approach”. The aim of task-based learning is to develop student’s ability in communication.
The task-based syllabus is known based on work by Krahnke (1981,1982), Candlin and Murphy (1986), and Johnson (1982). The defining characteristic of task-based content is that it uses activities that the learners have to do for noninstructional purposes outside of the classroom as opportunities for language learning. Tasks are distinct from other activities to the degree that they have a noninstructional purpose and measurable outcome. Tasks are way of bringing the real world into the classroom (Krahnke,1987).
There have been a lot of researchers and theories in the last twenty years on the use of tasks in language teaching, particularly tasks which involve interaction between learners (e.g., Breen, 1987; Prabhu, 1987; Nunan 1989).
As Willis (2004) points out, a number of crucial research findings change the course of EFL language teaching pedagogy in the 20th century. Due to the research findings, Finch (2006) concludes that as follows:
- Language learning, even in a classroom setting, seems to develop independently of instruction,
- Learners acquire language according to their own inbuilt internal syllabus regardless of the order in which they are exposed to particular structure and regardless of mother tongue influences,
- Teaching does not and cannot determine the way that the learner’s language will develop (citing Skehan, 1996),
- Learners do not necessary learn what teachers teach (citing Allwright, 1984),
- Learner do not first acquire language as a structural system and then learn how to use this system I communication, but rather actually discover the system itself in the process of learning how to communicate (citing Ellis, 2003, p.14)
In addition to the findings, psycho-linguistic and socio-linguistic researchs have shown that:
- Motivation is one of the key issues in language learning and that skills to motivate learners are crucial for language teachers (Dornyei, 2001, p. 1 citing in Finch, 2006),
- Collaboration is more effective than competition as a means of promoting effective learning (Kohn, 1992 citing in Finch 2006)
- Learners learn more in groups than individually, since cooperative social interaction produces new, elaborate, advanced psychological processes that are unavailable to the organism working in isolation (Vygotsky, 1989, p. 61 citing in Finch 2006).
This paper covers (1) the definition of task, (2) task components, (3) the characteristics of task-based syllabus (4) A framework for task-based course design, (5) Classifying tasks, (6) The thematic content of tasks, (7) Sequencing tasks, and (8) Constructing a task-based syllabus.
B. The Content
- The definition of task
Let us see some definition from some experts in task-based learning and teaching.
According to Long (1985):
A task is ‘a piece of work undertaken for oneself or others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a fair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, finding a street destination, and helping someone across a road. In other words, by “task” is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. “Tasks” are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists’.
According to Nunan (1989):
A communicative task is ‘a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. The task should also have a sense of completeness, being able to stand alone as a communicative act in its own right’.
And according to Bygate, Skehan, and Swain (2001):
‘A task is an activity which requires learners to use language, with emphasis on meaning, to attain an object’.
1. Task Components
The definition of a language learning task requires specification of four components: the goals, the input (linguistic or otherwise), the activities derived from this input, and finally the roles implied for teacher and learners (Nunan 1989, p. 47).
Candlin (1987) cited in Nunan 1990:47) suggests that tasks should contain input, roles, settings, actions, monitoring, outcomes and feedback. Input refers to the data presented for learners to work on. Roles specify the relationship between participants in a task. Setting refers to the classroom and out-of-class arrangements entailed in the task. Actions are the procedures and sub-tasks to be performed by the learners. Outcomes are the goal of the task, and feedback refers to evaluation of the task.
Shavelson and Stern (1981) cited in Nunan 1990), who are concerned with general educational planning rather than TESOL planning in particular, suggest that task design should take into consideration the following elements:
– Content – the subject matter to be taught
– Materials – the things that learners can observe/manipulate
– Activities – the things the learners and teacher will be doing during the lesson
– Goals – the teacher’s general aim for the task (these are much more general and vague than objectives)
– Students – their abilities, needs and interests are important
– Social community – the class as a whole and it s sense of ‘groupness’
(Shavelson and stern 1981: 478)
Wright (1987 in Nunan 1990) suggests that tasks need minimally contain just two elements. These are input data which may be provided by materials, teachers or learners and initiating question which instructs learners on what to do with the data.
1. The characteristic of task-based syllabus
Looking at the characteristic of task-based syllabus, there are positive and negative characteristic. Positive characteristic: (1) task-based instruction is potentially very powerful and widely applicable, (2) suitable for learners of all ages and backgrounds, (3) addresses the crucial problem-directly, by using active and real tasks as learning activities, (4) ability to perform the instructional task is equivalent to the ability to use the language, so functional ability should be a natural outcome of the instructional experience, (5) task-based learning can be very effective when the learners are engaged in relatively similar out-of-class activities (social or academic), (6) task-based learning can be especially useful for learners who are not accustomed to more traditional type of classroom learning or who need to learn cognitive, cultural, and life skills along with the language.
While the negative characteristics are: (1) problems can easily arise with teachers, the instructional setting, or the students, (2) task-based learning requires resources beyond the text books, (3) because TBL is not what many students expected and want from a language, they may resist or object to this type of instruction, (4) evaluation of TBL can be difficult, however, it is easy to measure the language proficiency.
- A framework for task-based course design
The construction of a task-based syllabus requires a specification of the tasks to be included in the syllabus. To achieve this it is helpful to classify tasks in terms of their type, to determine their thematic content and then to sequence them using appropriate criteria for grading their level of difficulty for the learner. This will suffice in the preparation of a task-based syllabus consisting entirely of linguistically unfocused tasks. However, an optional element in the framework is a specification of the features of language, i.e. the forms and functions of language, to be incorporated into the design of the syllabus.
- Classifying tasks
Task classification is important for a number of reasons. First, it provides a basis for ensuring variety; syllabus designer can refer to the classification to ensure that they incorporate a range of task types into the course. Second, it can be used to identify the task types that match the specific needs or preferences of particular groups of learners. Third, it affords teachers a framework for experimenting with tasks in their classroom; they can systematically try out the different types of tasks to discover which tasks work for their students.
Willis (1996) offers a somewhat different pedagogic classification of tasks based on an analysis of the kinds of tasks commonly found in text book materials. The types reflect the kind of operations learners are required to carry out in performing tasks:
- Listing, i.e. where the completed outcome is a list
- Ordering and sorting, i.e. tasks that involve sequencing, ranking, categorizing or classifying items.
- Comparing, i.e. tasks that involve finding differences or similarities in information.
- Problem-solving, i.e. tasks that demand intellectual activity as in puzzles or logic problems.
- Sharing personal experiences, i.e. tasks that allow learners to talk freely about themselves and share experiences.
- Creative tasks, i.e. projects, often involving several stages that can incorporate the various types of tasks above and can include the need to carry out some research.
Willis acknowledges that this classification is not exhaustive but argues that it will help to generate a variety of actual tasks.
A rhetorical classification of tasks draws on theories of rhetoric that distinguish different discourse domain in terms of their structure and linguistic properties-narrative, instruction, description, reports, etc. Such a classification often underlies language courses for academic purposes (for example, Arnaudet 1984) and is often linked to the specific language functions that figure in academic written discourse, for example, definitions, classifications, giving examples. One advantage of adopting a rhetorical classification is that discourse domain has been shown to be a factor that influences both the negotiation of meaning and the quality of learner production. Another advantage is that it lends itself to the design of specific purpose courses, as learners’ needs can often be readily specified in terms of the specific domains they need to master.
An alternative, more theoretically satisfying approach to classifying tasks rhetorically is to utilize the concept of genre, defined by Swales (1990 in Ellis 2003:212) as ‘a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes’. Exemplars of a given genre not just a given structure and style but a communicative purpose. However, they can be more or less prototypical of genre. Examples of genres are recipes, political speeches, job application letters, good/bad news, medical consultations and radio-telephonic flight control messages. Swales shows how genre analysis can be used effectively to describe the types of discourse found in academic settings and provides an extended account of one such genre-the research article. He suggests that the ideal pedagogic vehicle for teaching genres is ‘task’.
A cognitive approach to classifying tasks is based the kind of cognitive operations different types of tasks involve. Prabhu (1982) distinguishes three general types of tasks based on the kind of cognitive activity involved:
- Information-gap activity involves ‘a transfer of given information from one person to another-or from one form to another, or from one place to another-generally calling for the encoding or decoding of information from or into language.
- Reasoning-gap activity involves ‘driving some new information from given information through process of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationships or patterns’.
- Opening-gap activity involves ‘identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation’.
A psycholinguistic classification of tasks sets out to establish a typology of tasks in relation to their potential for language learning. The system is ‘psycholinguistic’ in the sense that is based on interactional categories that have been shown to affect the opportunities learners have to comprehend input, obtain feedback, and to modify their own output. The categories are:
- Interactant relationship: this concerns who holds the information to be exchanged and who requests it and supplies it in order to achieve the task goals. It relates to the distinction between one-way and two-way tasks. This category is derived from research that indicates that when there is a mutual relationship of request and suppliance, negotiation, of meaning is more likely to occur.
- Interaction requirement: this concerns whether the task requires participants to request and supply information or whether this is optional.
- Goal orientation: this concerns whether the task requires the participants to agree on a single outcome or allows them to disagree.
- Outcome options: this refers to the scope of the task outcomes available to the participants in meeting the task goals.
A General framework
From the above account of task classification, it is clear that there is currently no accepted single typology of tasks nor is there any consensus regarding the choice of organizing principle for constructing such a typology. At best then, task classification can be informed by a general framework based on a number of key dimensions of tasks. The following figure is an attempt at such a general framework. It draws on rhetorical, cognitive, and psycholinguistic typologies described above.
The thematic content of tasks
In Estaire and Zanon’s (1994) framework for developing a task-based unit of work, for example, ‘select theme or interest area’ is the starting point. Similarly, a key element in the preparation of the ‘final task’ of a unit is determining the ‘thematic aspects’ of the task.
The choice of theme will depend to a considerable extent on whether the pedagogic purpose of the task-based course is general proficiency or some specific use of the L2. In the case of the former, the guiding principles in the selection of content for task will be (1) topic familiarity and (2) intrinsic interest (3) topic relevancy by predicting the general situations that learners may later find themselves in.
Estaire and Zanon (1994) provide a ‘theme generator’. This is organized in terms of thematic areas that are close or remote to the learner. Estaire and Zanon offer a number of specific topics for each thematic area based on suggestions made by teachers they have worked with. For example, topics relating to ‘students’ include ‘birthdays’, ‘eating habits’, and ‘how the body works’. Of course, the themes/topics chosen for a particular group of learners will depend on both the students’ level of proficiency, i.e. close topics being more suitable for beginner learners and remote topics for more advance learners, and also on local cultural values and interests.
2. Sequencing tasks
The design of a syllabus requires the content be sequenced so as to facilitate maximum learning. In effect, this requires determining the complexity of individual tasks so that tasks can be matched to learners’ level of development.
Sequencing tasks faces several problems in particular grading criteria to be used. Widdowson (1990) notes that we do not possesses a sufficiently well-defined model of cognitive complexity to establish such criteria and concludes that task-based syllabuses thus face exactly the same problem as linguistic syllabuses-they cannot be modeled on the sequence of language acquisition.
There are three sets of factors which learners are able to perform different tasks. First, task complexity, as Robinson (2001: 29) comments:
Task complexity is the result of the attentional memory, reasoning, and other information processing demands imposed by the structure of the task on the language learner. These differences in information processing demands, resulting from design characteristics, are relatively fixed and invariant.
Task complexity can account for intra-learner variability, i.e. the variability evident when the same learner performs different tasks.
Second, task difficulty, Robinson identifies factors relating to learners as individuals, which can influence how easy or difficult a particular task is for different participants. Task difficulty accounts for inter-learner variability. And finally, the methodological procedures used to teach a task. These procedures can increase or ease the processing burden placed on the learner. They include the use of pre-task activity, for example, pre teaching the vocabulary needed to perform the task or carrying out a task similar to the main task with the assistance of the teacher, and planning time, i.e. giving students the opportunity to plan before they undertake task.
Factors relating to input
With regard to input medium, information that is presented in written or pictorial form, which can be decoded in the learner’s own time, is likely to be easier to process than information that is provided orally, which requires online decoding. However, the validity of this claim will depend on the learner’s level of proficiency in the L2. Prabhu (1987 in Ellis 2003: 222) notes that the students in the Communicational Teaching Project (beginner learners in Indian secondary schools) found tasks with an oral input easier than tasks presented in writing. It can also be surmised that pictorial input will be easier than verbal input as it makes no demands on the learners’ linguistic resources. Tasks involving pictures and diagrams frequently figure in courses designed for learners of limited proficiency (for example, Prabhu 1987).
The code complexity of the input, i.e. its lexical and syntactical complexity, is also likely to influence the learner’s ability to comprehend. Input texts with high frequency vocabulary and a low level of subordination are easier to understand than texts with low frequency vocabulary and complex sentence structure.
Cognitive complexity is as important as code complexity. This concerns the cognitive demands of processing the informational content of the input material. Brown et al. (1984) suggest that it involves two dimensions. First, there is the information type. This can be ‘static’ task, i.e. the information contains changing events and activities as in a video story, or ‘abstract’, i.e. tasks that present information that has to be used to form an opinion or justify a position. The second dimension referred to by Brown et al. concerns the amount of information to be processed-the number of different elements or relationships involved.
Robinson (1995) bases his claim that context-free input is more complex on the results of L1 and L2 studies that show ‘there and then’ reference to be developmentally later. Nunan (1989) also notes that texts supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and graphs are easier to understand.
Familiarity of information
‘familiarity of information’ relates to ‘task difficulty’ as much as to ‘task complexity’, as it concerns the relationship between the theme of the task and individual learner’s world knowledge. Prabhu (1987: 88 in Ellis 2003: 223) comments that ‘learners’ knowledge of the world can make tasks more or less difficult for them, depending on whether they are more or less familiar with purposes and constraints of the kind involved in the tasks’.
Factors relating to task conditions
Condition influencing the negotiation of meaning
Markee (1997: 98 in Ellis 2003: 224) notes that ‘some tasks are psycholinguistically more difficult to complete than others’. He bases this claims that indicates that one-way tasks promote less negotiation of meaning than two-way tasks.
One condition that has received some attention is task demands, specifically whether the task imposes a single or a dual demand.
Skehan (2001) proposes that dialogic tasks promote greater accuracy and complexity and monologic tasks greater fluency.
Factors relating to the process of performing a task
Of the three types of tasks that Prabhu (1987) describes that information-gap tasks proved the easiest and opinion-gap tasks the most difficult, with reasoning-gap tasks intermediate. In the case of reasoning tasks, Prabhu identifies the reasoning needed as a key factor determining complexity:
The ‘distance’ between the information provided and the information arrived at as outcome, i.e. the number of steps involved in the deduction, inference, or calculation, is a measure of relative difficulty of tasks.
Factors relating to task outcomes
Medium of the outcome
The medium of outcome is a potential factor influencing task complexity. Pictorial and written products may prove easier than oral products, especially if the latter involve a presentation of some kind. This will depend on the difficulty individual learners experience with the different media.
The scope of the outcome
There is no literature on the relative complexity of tasks with closed and open outcomes. Intuitively, tasks with closed outcomes will be easier in that the participants know there is a ‘right’ answer and thus can direct their efforts more purposefully, and perhaps more economically.
The discourse domain of the outcome
The degree of complexity of these discourse domains depend on the level of detail required in the product. Instructions, for example, can be more or less complex depending on the number and content of the specific directives.
Complexity of the outcome
Skehan (2001: 173) identifies complexity of outcome as an important factor in decision making tasks. He comments:
Some tasks require only straightforward outcomes, in which a simple decision has to be made. Others require multi-faceted judgements, in which the case or position a learners argues during a task can only be effective if it anticipates other possible outcomes, and other learners contributions.
The nature of the outcome impacts on the task performance, affecting the complexity of arguments that need to be made.
3. Constructing a task-based syllabus
The planning the task-based syllabus needs the following procedures:
- The starting points is the determination of the goal(s) of the course in terms of its pedagogic focus (general or specific purpose), skill focus (listening, speaking, reading, writing, learner training) and language focus (unfocused or focused)
- The designer then needs to make a broad choice of task types and specify the particular themes the tasks will deal with. The result of this stage is a list of tasks organized by theme and specified in terms of the general activity that the learners will be required to undertake.
- The third step would be to specify the nature of the tasks to be used in detail by selecting options relating to input, conditions, process, and outcomes. The selection would need to be motivated both by a consideration of the psycholinguistic value of the different options and by practical considerations relating to the specific teaching context.
- Finally, the tasks need to be sequenced.
C. Some related information from other resources
The followings are some research of the implementations of task-based.
Carless, D.R (2003), “Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary schools”. His qualitative case study explains that within the Asia Pasific region, a number of attempts to introduce communicative or task-based approaches have often proven problematic, in South Korea (Li, 1998); in Hong Kong (Carless, 1999; Evans, 1996); in Japan (Browne and Wada, 1998; Gorsuch, 2001); in China (Hui, 1997; Liao, 2000); in Vietnam (Ellis, 1996; Kramsch and Sulivan, 1996); and Indonesia (Tomlinson, 1990).
Factors in implementation of task-based teachings are teachers’ understandings of tasks, their attitudes, the classroom time available for task-based teaching, teacher preparation of resources, influence of textbook and topics, and the language proficiency of pupils.
Bruton, A. (2006) “Description or Prescription for Task-Based Instruction? A Reply to Littlewood”. Bruton analyzed the Lttlewood (2004) proposal on the task-based approach. Liitlewood offers two dimensions, task involvement and task focus, on which to place activities in the classroom activities.
Finch, A. (2006) “Task-based supplementation: Achieving high school textbook goals through form-focused interaction”. The research showed that meaningful learning could occur, and could be perceived (by the students) to occur. The interactive format of the task-based supplementary activities, students became involved in the learning process, and benefited from an improved awareness of what they were learning and why they were learning it.
Cheng-jun W. (2006) “”Designing Communicative Task for College English Course”. Cheng-jun concluded that the communicative tasks design has been proved to be effective in teaching a foreign language in promoting the learners competence in using the language to do things they need to do. Communicative tasks design offers a change from the traditional teaching routines through which many learners have previously failed to communicative.
Task-based syllabus is a set of planning or set of instructional materials based the aims that have been established for a language program. Task-based syllabus can be used in teaching or learning the communicative purposes. It is organized around tasks that students will complete in the target language. A task is an activity or goal that is carried out using language such as finding a solution to a puzzle, reading a map and giving directions, or reading a set of instructions and assembling a toy (Richard 2001: 161).
A task-based syllabus, however, is one based on tasks that have been specially designed to facilitate second language learning and one in each tasks or activities are the basic unit of syllabus design. A number of second language acquisition theorists have proposed tasks as a basis for syllabus planning. Long and Crookes (1991, 43 in Richard 2001) claim that tasks: “provide a vehicle for the presentation of appropriate target language samples to learners – input which they will inevitably reshape via application of general cognitive processing capacities – and for the delivery of comprehension and production opportunities of negotiable difficulty.”
Khranke, K. 1987 Approaches to Syllabus Design for Foreign Language Teaching, New Jersy, USA.: Prentice Hall, Inc,
Nunan, D. (1989) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridg University Press.
Richard, J.C. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge Language Education.
Allen, E.D. andValette, R.M. 1972. Classroom Techniques: Foreign Languages and English as a Second Language, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Richard, J.C. and Renandya, W.A. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. 1988. The Learner-Centered Curriculum; A study in second language teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richard, J.C. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. 1997. Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kumpulan permendiknas tentang SNP dan panduan KTSP, 2008.
GBPP Kurikulum 1994, Depdiknas, Jakarta.
Homework: every student has it, and most students despise it. But why is homework important? How does it benefit students?
Many may think that homework is given simply because teachers overload their lesson plans with too much material, and not enough time. Whatever isn’t covered in class gets sent home for students to complete independently. However, homework is one of the most important components of education. Its purpose is not to overload students with assignments after a full day of school. Homework is meant to supplement the material learned in class, and enhances students’ understanding of topics.
Homework gives students the opportunity to not only practice ideas covered in school, but the opportunity to master these concepts as well. In order to become proficient, students must be capable of completing work independently. By doing it at home, students are able to review and practice material taught in class. They learn how to apply functions and abilities without the overshadowing of an instructor. By doing work independently, students are driven to find answers to questions they may have and develop answers through trial and error.
Doing school work at home provides students with the opportunity to use external resources to gather information. Taking advantage of libraries, the internet, and other sources of reference material enables students to broaden their investigative abilities. These resources aid students in exercising their researching skills and prepares them for future academic quests.
Homework is also a chance for parents to be involved in their student’s academics. When children bring school work home, it incidentally exposes parents to the school curriculum. Children may refer to their parents if they have a question about their homework, thus engaging parents. The more parents are involved in education, the more value children place on its importance.
Students develop positive study skills and habits through homework. They must be self-sufficient in order to complete necessary tasks. Their academic grade depends on the quality of their work, and it’s essential for students to understand the impact homework has on their grades. By developing consistent time management skills, students are capable of effectively utilizing their schedule. This allows them to establish competent habits in order to complete assignments.
If a student is struggling in their homework, there are math tutoring options available. These programs are designed to coach students in their academics. Math is one of the most important aspects of a child’s education, and finding an exceptional math tutoring facility to help your student reach milestones in school is vital. A math tutor is sure to aid your child in the skills necessary in order to complete school assignments efficiently.
MathWizard is a tutoring facility with English & Math Learning Center locations in Ohio, New Jersey, and Illinois. We also have a Mail Program which services the continental United States and Canada.
EXISTENTIALISM IN EDUCATION.
A keen study of quite an amount of existentialist philosophy would reveal that to write about existentialism is neither easy nor simple but a challenging and complex one. If doubts and confusions are left uncleared, one can only say that “contradictions and inconsistencies are fundamental to their thought.”1
Some illustrations of such paradoxes are – Heidegger’s statement -: ‘analyse death to understand life’, Jaspers : ‘Renounce your world and you will return to it’, Santre : You are a free man if you deny God’, Kierkegaard : ‘You are a free man if you accept God”, etc. When once a critique drew the attention of Sartre by his remark. ‘Your philosophy is problematic and ambiguous’, Sartre’s reply was ‘Man does seem to me to be ambiguous.’2
Not only their thought, even their language is obscure. Here is an example of existentialist dialectical confusion : ‘Nothing’ is revealed in dread, but not as something that ‘is’. Neighter can it be taken as an object. Dread is not an apprehension of Nothing. We would say rather : in dread Nothing functions as if at one with WHAT-IS-IN-TOTALITY?3
“Another very significant source of confusion arises out of the different personal lives and convictions of existential philosophers. Kierkegaard, Marcel and Jaspers are theists whereas Sartre and Heideggar are agnostics. Jaspers is a protestant whereas Marcel is a staunch Roman Catholic. Less said the better about the diversities of other existentialist philosophers like Berdyaev, Buber, Tillich and Neibhur.”
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW -:
Just as the whole of Indian philosophy is either an extension, interpretation, criticism and corroboration of the Vedas and in it the Upanishads or an outright revolt against them, similarly it may be remarked of western philosophy as either a clarification of Socrates or his rejection. One would be still right in saying that the whole of western philosophy is an appendix on Socrates. So it is even true with existentialism that Socrates has been considered to be the first existentialist. Socrates statement : “I am and always have been a man to obey nothing in my nature except the resoning which upon reflection, appears to me to be the best.” Right from Plato down to (Spinoza, Leibnitz) Descartes, the majority of western thinkers have been believing in the immutability of ideas and the rest of the thinkers have been suggesting correctives to it. Anyhow their frame of reference has always been ‘Essence Precedes Existence’, essense being referred to ideas, values, ideals, thoughts, etc. and existence being referred to our lives. The last in the series was Hegal who carried farthest this effort to understand the world rationally.
But by the middle of the 19th Century there sprang up a Danish philosopher, Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) who not only rejected the platonic view but reversed the order itself. Kierkegaard who may considered to be the founder of the philosophy of existence contradicted Hegal and asserted that Existence Precedes Essence.6 It is against any kind of rationalisations, universalities and generalities in philosophy. There is the extreme subjectivism in it. His major work ‘Either/or/to be or not to be.
Atleast for the western world, the first half of the twentieth century has been an age marked by anxieties, conflicts, sufferings, tragic episodes, dread, horrow, anguish, persecusion and human sacrifices caused by the two intermittent world wars. As Harper writes : “Tragedy, death, guilt, suffering all force one to appraise one’s total situation, much more than do happiness, joy, success, innocence, since it is in the former that momentous choices must be made.”7 So, there sprang up a group of philosophers spread all over Germany, France and Italy which were the places of social crisis.
Significant among these philosophers were Karl Jaspers and Martin Heidegaar from Germany. France contributed two other existentialists -: Gabriel Marcel and Jean Paul Sartre. ‘There are quite a few gentlemen who are associated remotely with the philosophy of existentialism like Schelling, Nietsche, Pascal, Hussrell who have influenced existential thought but cannot be rigidly classified as existentialists.”8 Existentialism thus has a short history of nearly two centuries.
MEANING OF EXISTENTIALISM -:
There are numerous ways to analyse the currents of existential thinking. As a system of philosophy or a school of thought, existentialism is a revole against traditional metaphysics. As a theory of human development, it is an approach to highlight the existence of being the process of becoming. Since a person, in the becoming state, always exists in a constantly dynamic phase, “his life may be regarded as a journey on which he finds ever newer experiences and gains greater insights.”
Existentialism represents a protest against the rationalism of traditional philosophy, against misleading notions of the bourgeois culture, and the dehumanising values of industrial civilization. Since alienation, loneliness and self-strangement constitute threats to human personality in the modern world, existential thought has viewed as its cardinal concerns a quest for subjective truth, a reaction against the ‘negation of Being’ and a perennial search for freedom. From the ancient Greek philosopher, Socrates, to the Twentieth Century. French philosopher, Jean Paul, Sartre, thinkers have dealt with this tragic sense of ontological reality – the human situation within a comic context.
ETYMOLOGICAL MEANING -:
Etymological meaning of ‘existence’ from two German words -: ‘ex-sistent’ meaning that which stands out, that which ‘emerges’ suggests that existentialism is a philosophy that emerges out of problems of life.
EXISTENTIALISM DEFINED -:
Various definitions of existentialism have been proposed by different authors.
Blackham (1952) has described existenalism as a philosophy of being “a philosophy of attestation and acceptance, and a refusal of the attempt to rationalize and to think Being.”
The peculiarity of existentialism, according to Blackham is that, “it deals with the separation of man from himself and from the world, which raises the question of philosophy not by attempting to establish some universal form of justification which will enable man to readjust himself but by permanently enlarging and lining the separation itself as primordial and constitutive for personal existence.”12
Harries and Leveys (1975) defined existentialism as “any of several philosophic systems, all centred on the individual and his relationship the universe or to God.” 13
Tiryakian (1962) defines it as “an attempt to reaffirm the importance of the individual by rigorous and in many respects radically new analysis of the nature of man.”14
In the opinion presented here, existentialism is a humanistic perspective on the individual situation, a philosophy of existence, of being, of authenticity and of universal freedom. It is a quest, beyond despaire, for creative identity. It is the philosophy that is a counsellor in crisis, “a crisis in the individual’s life, which calls upon him to make a ‘choice’ regarding his subsequent existence.”15
In brief, Existence does not mean living alive alone, it means to maintain perfect, powerful, self-conscious, responsible and intelligent life. Man should get opportunity for subjective consciousness. Truth is realised only in inner life. As modern mechanical and industrial life has taken away individual freedom from man, Existentialism lays emphasis on Freedom and Individual Responsibility. It has an Eye-view on human weakness and insecurity as man is leading a lonely life, being surrounded by anxieties, frustrations, fear, feeling of guilt etc. His individuality is being crushed.
BASIC TENETS AND FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES -:
1) The centre of existence is man rather than truth, laws, principles or essence.
Man is characterized by decisions, will and choice. Although existentialists emphasize man’s place in the world, or man’s relationship to Being, or even man’s relationship to God, they still indicate that there is a certain uniqueness and mystery about the human person. The phenomenon of man is life as it is lived, and the mystery is an awareness of man’s deep and complex meaning, science and rational thinking cannot grasp or explain it.
2) This notion of the uniqueness and mystery man implies that previous definitions of man have been completely unsatisfactory.
The uniqueness of man comes from his emotions, feelings, perception and thinking. The philosophy of existentialism stresses meaning, only through development of meaning in his life, man can make something of the absurdity which surrounds him. Man is the maker, and, therefore, the master of culture. It is man who imposes a meaning on his universe, although that universe may well function without him. Man cannot be ‘taught’ what the world is about. He must create this for himself.
3) Man is not alone in the world.
He is connected to other men; he communicates with others; therefore, he cannot live in a state of anarchy. Life is seen as a gift, which, in part is a mystery. Man is free to choose commitments in life, in his choice, he becomes himself. He is the product of his choices. He is, therefore, an individual who is different from other persons. The real living person is more important than any statement we can make about him. Man’s existence is more important than his essence.
4) Existentialism propounds the belief that man cannot accept the ready-made concepts of existence forced upon him.
He is a free agent capable of shaping of shaping his own life and choosing his own destiny. Thus we cannot treat people as machines, first pulling one lever, than another, and expect predictable results. Therefore, we cannot say that the stimulus response or conditioning is a sufficient description of man’s behaviour. Man can transcend both himself and his culture.
5) A synthesis of immanency and transcendency, guided by a primordial sense of ontological wonder and subjective knowledge constitutes existence.
6) People are able to appreciate human fortitude only through extreme situations, sorrow, disappointment and death enable humans to achieve authentic life. In short the main tenets of existentialism involve a kind of subjective and direct approach upholding the emergence of the person in a rather impersonal environment.
SOME CONCEPTS USED IN EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) Existence precedes essence
It was Plato who said that the surrounding world is a world of essences – ideas, values, ideals, thought etc. and the purpose of life is to discover these essences. Essences are already there and they precede existence. Even existence is an embodiment of an essence – the self, which is a part of an universal essence – the self. The majority of other Western philosopher carried forward this theory.
Descartes even affirmed the reality of existence because of its essence – thinking as he said, “I think, therefore, I am”. Bergson even went to the extreme of saying that ‘I do not think it (essence) thinks in me’,16 thereby striking a transcendental, desperately deterministic note on human existence.
Similarly naturalist philosophers rejected this type of a transcendental determinism but replaced it by a naturalistic determinism by identifying essences in nature as preceding existence. On the other hand pragmatists spoke of social determinism. As such, exstentialism is a revolt against any kind of determinism and an affirmation of the free nature of man. They affirm that existence is prior to essence that man is fundamentally free to create his essences.
As Blackham writes, “There is no creater of man. Man discovered himself. His existence came first, he now is in the process of determining his essence. Man first is, then he defines himself.”17
As Sartre himself explains his concept to us, “what is meant here by saying that, ‘existence precedes essence?’ “It means that, first of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and only afterwards defines himself. It mean, as the existentialist sees him is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterwards will be something and he himself will have made what he will be…”18
Therefore, it can be easily observed that when idealists believe in transcendental values, Naturalists believe that values are resident in nature, pragmatists believe that values arise out of social life, existentialists affirm that the individual alone creates values. Reality is a state of becoming. Existence increases with every moment of life and essence is a consequence of this perpetual becoming.
2) ‘Contingency’ of human life is the ‘giveness’ or ‘throw ness’ of human life.
Existentialists believe that existence of a person means his period from birth to death. There was nothing before birth and would be nothing beyond death. In between we have been thrown into a social life and the characteristics of this social life are the contingent circumstances of our life. ‘This contingency is often characterised by experiences of dread, horror, anguish, solitude, bewilderment, uncertainty and finally limited by death.’19
As Jean Wahl puts it : “Man is in this world, a world limited by death and experienced in anguish; is aware of himself as essentially anxious; is burdened by his solitude within the horizen of his temporality.”20
Therefore, we are all aware of our situation in life, limited by death and existentialists rightly remark that man is the only being in the world who knows that some time he will die. That is why his existence is throughout permeated by dread, anxiety and fear. He cannot escape or transcend this situations. He must learn to live with anguish, dread and anxiety. He must learn to love death (Justices Socrates, Lincoln, Kennedy, Gandhi and a score of other great men for whom dying for a meaningful cause was of greater significance than living a purposeless life.)
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AND EXISTENTIAL CONCEPT -:
There are a number of correlates in Indian philosophy for existential concepts for e.g., anguish, Dukha, dread and horror; Bhagya, Bhiti etc.
But when existentialism advises us to live with these categories of contingency, Indian philosophy counsels us to transcend them. This is very clearly evident in the concepts of a sthithaprajna21 in the Gita. One sloke runs like this –
¤ãü:?Öê¿Öã ´ÖÖ×¾¤ü?Ö: ÃÖã?Öê¿Öã ×²Ö?ÖÖÃ¯ÖéÆü
¾ÖßŸÖ¸üÖ?Ö ³ÖµÖ: ?ëúÖê¬Ö ×Ã£ÖŸÖ×¬Ö: ´Öã×Ö¹ý“”ûŸÖê 22
(He who is not depressed by anguish, elated by joy and at times of fear, anxiety love, horror and anger maintains his equanimity and poise as a sage). 23
Even the India attitude towards death is similar to that of existentialism. As an illustration, to quota Gita -: (For a man enjoying popular esteem infancy is worse than death) ‘Gandhi once had said that death in freedom is sweeter than life in bondage.’25
3) Freedom is identical with existence -:
According to Sartre freedom is identical with existence. As such existentialism has even been described as a search for ways in which man’s freedom to create may be widely established and understood. In Marjorie Grene’s terms -: “The revolutionary philosophy turns out to be philosophy of freedom – not just the philosophy of those who seek freedom but the philosophy of the very free act itself.”27 According to existentialists, man is not only free but he is condemned to be free. He is only not free, not to be free. This is the tragedy of human life. This infinite freedom entails upon him a heavy sense of responsibility and this situation of being burdened with a heavy responsibility is the cause of dread, anguish and anxiety. The peculiar quality of human reality is that it is without excuse.28 A bold, honest, responsible and authentic existence would help man to face this situation.
According to existentialist, education should make a man subjective and should make him conscious for his individuality or ‘self’. Being self conscious he will recognise his ‘self’ and he will get an understanding of his ‘being’.
5) Authentic man
Existentialists have a special connotation of the Authentic man, they say is one who has permeation of his values and choices by clear awareness of his situation, especially regarding the fact of death. If a man considers death imminent he leads authentic existence.
Individuality lies on self-realisation, a motivating force, which makes the inner life of man centre of concentration free from anxiety. There is a basic desire and inclination for the existence of individuality in man. It should be recognised. If this existential individuality is recognised, his life becomes purposeful and important. At the same time he becames conscious for his ‘self’.
7) Subjectivity (self consciousness)
It means nature of knower. But Chaube, S.P. and Akhilesh (1981, p.225) writes -: Kierkegeard says, “ Because I exist, because I think, therefore, I think that I exist.” According to the statement ‘I think’ it is clear that ‘I’ exists and it has existence. ‘I’ that exists is always subjective and not objective. Objectivity always proves an impossible notion. It gives only ideas but these ideas can be realised only by becoming introvert and subjective. If we use ‘we’ in place of ‘I’ the existence of ‘I’ is lost and objectivity replaces subjectivity. Existential subjectivity means only ‘self-existence’. Objective knowledge is realised mentally only when a person ponders over it subjectively. But objective knowledge is without object, because as soon as the self-realises it, it becomes devoid of object and by becoming centre of self-consciousness, becomes comprehensive and subjective. Now the person because of knowing the object does not desire to know the object, but he emerges himself in knowing the self.
(Note -: The concept ‘meaning’ and ‘existence’ is already discussed)
1) For the existentialist Reality I s ‘Being’ or ‘existence of an individual’.
2) Existentialism wants man to be without metaphysics.
3) They wish to restore the status of man which he has lost in this advanced technological and mechanised society.
4) Man is not man but humanity. It implies that each man’s actions, while subjectively inspired influence by other people.
5) The existentialists aver that the person’s mind is the source and substance of all knowledge.
6) The realisation of existence proceeds from the ‘inwardness of man’.
7) That knowledge is valid which is of value to the individual.
8) They do not believe in absolute values. They argue that as long as the empirical spirit remains alive, it must remain open to revision and correction and hence it cannot adhere to fixed values.
9) Values should be generated by our free decisions.
10) Freedom is the source of ultimate values.
11) The emphasis on ‘personal existence’ and subjectivity in existentialism has led to an emphasis on man’s freedom, Choice and Action.
12) Freedom is the raw material of ‘his being’. Man owes ‘his being’ to freedom, which is the basis of all human activity. “To be free is to be free to change to do, to act, to inflict oneself on the world, to change the world.”29
13) The idea of death should be accepted gracefully.
14) Existence precedes essence. It means a person lives before he dies. Until a person dies he can always change his essence by doing good things and then he will die a noble death.
15) Even if God exists, that would make no difference for a man who needs to know that nothing can save him from himself, not even the valid proof of the existence of God.
16) Human development is seen as independent of external forces, guided by the creative forces of the integral self. It is the development that is a self-directed synthesis of self-destined energy, potential, aspirations and needs.
17) The individual has freedom of choice, which implies a capacity to change. It is a freedom that helps with the self-emerging process.
18) Identify and security attained at the cost of freedom constitude bad faith. Likewise, to question the dynamic of the personality is an act of bad faith.
19) Development consists of a uniquely subjective style by which the individual relates to others and to the processes of being and becoming.
20) “The individuality of man is supreme. This ‘individuality’ is greater and more important than the existence of man, nation and the world. It is very much near to the individual life of man.”30
21) The existence of ‘self’ is related with the existence of the ‘other’.
V.R. Taneja Writes -: “Existentialists do not believe in absolute values. Indirectly, however, they concede absolute values like ‘awareness of death’, ‘fidelity’, ‘sincerity’, ‘integrity’ etc. “Existentialism is an ethic of integrity in which running away from oneself is evil, facing oneself is good.” It is the integrity of character and action rather than of vision alone that is to be prized. “Treat every man as an end and never as means”. Everyone must choose without reference to pre-established values. Everyone has to invent a law for oneself. Man makes himself. He is not found readymade. He makes himself by the choice of his morality. He cannot choose anything else except his morality. Such is the pressure of circumstances upon him. The heart and centre of existentialism is the absolute character of free commitment through which he realise himself.”31
EDUCAIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EXISTENTIALISM -:
“The philosophy of existentialism has not displayed any particular interest in eduction.”32 Therefore, it has been observed that the educational implications are derived and deduced from their philosophy rather than that are developed by existentialists.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCTION AND EXISTENTIALISM –
1) “Education is that which helps an individual to realise the best that he is capable of. In doing so eduction must help the individual to realise the ‘facticity’ (contingency) of his existence to face the categories of this facticity – dread, anguish, anxiety and fear – resolutely and courageously and finally prepare him to meet death with pleasure.”33
2) “Education for happiness is a dangerous doctrine because there can be no happiness without pain and no ecstasy without suffering.”34 Therefore, existentialists would welcome an education, which throws open to children human suffering, misery, anguish and the dreadful responsibilities of adult life.
3) Students must develop a consistent scale of values, authenticate their existence by being committed to these values and so act as to be prepared to die for these values than to live without them. Dyning for one’s own country constituted the supreme sacrifice.
4) Every individual is unique. Education must develop in him
this uniqueness. It must cater to individual differences.
5) Education must make pupil aware of the infinite possibilities of his freedom and the responsibilities he must bear in life.
6) The most important aim in education is the becoming of a human person as one who lives and makes decisions about what he will do and be. “Knowing” in the sense of knowing oneself, social relationship, and biological development, are all the parts of becoming. Human existence and the value related to it is the primary factory in eduction.
7) Education for complete development of personality.
8) More importance to subjective knowledge than objective knowledge.
9) Education for perfection of man in his environment.
10) Education should create consciousness for ‘self’.
11) Eduction should train men to make better choices and also give the man the idea that since his choices are never perfect, the consequences cannot be predicted.
12) “The ultimate aim of education is to make man conscious of his destination, to give understanding of his ‘being’ and ultimately lead him to his heavenly abode. So, it is clear that the existentialism accepts the principle of liberal education.”35
In short, the objective of education is to enable every individual to develop his unique qualities, to harness his potentialities and cultivate his individualities. It means the implication of existentialist formulations for child rearing education and counselling practises are many. Since existentialists behold human life as unique and emerging a child is to be recognised as a full person and not simple as an in complete adult. The practices by which the child is socialized varied from culture to culture.
CURRICULUM OF EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) Since the existentialists believe in the individuals freedom, they do not advocate any rigid curriculum.
2) They recognise the ‘individual differences’ and wish to have diverse curricula suiting the needs, abilities and aptitudes of the individual.
3) Curriculum, they say should not primarily satisfy the immediate needs but also ultimate needs.
4) The central place is given to ‘humanities’, poetry, drama, music, art, novels etc. as they exert the human impact in revealing man’s inherent quilt, sin, suffering, tragedy, death, late and love. Humanities have spiritual power. Art and Literature, they say should be taught, as they represent a priori (cause effect) power of human nature. Through these the students profit from the ideas and judgement of others.
5) “Second place is given to social sciences as they lead the man to feel that he is nothing more than an object. They however, wish to teach social sciences for inculcating moral obligation and for knowing the relationship of the individual to a group.”36
6) History should be taught in order to help the students to change the course of history and to mould future.
7) The specialization in any field must be complemented by liberalising studies for it is the man who counts and not the profession.
8) The study of the world’s religion should be taught so as to develop religious attitude freely within the students. The ideal school permits religious unfolding in according with whatever doctrine the student wishes to accept or to reject. Religion keeps him aware of death.
9) Realisation of self-forme part of the curriculum. Self-examination and social obedience is the first lesson. The child must be saved from his own unexamined self and from those who interfere with the free exercise of his moral decision.
10) Scientific subjects and mathematics should be included in the curriculum but they should not be given more stress, as they deal with objective knowledge. ‘Self-knowledge precedes universal knowledge.’37
In short, they don’t believe in formal curriculum consisting of set of body of studies to be pursued but a curriculum, which features the reverberatory effect upon heart, and mind of passionate good reading and then personal contact. The curriculum should be chosen, sorted out and owned by the learner.
INSTUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE AND EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) Existentialists favour the Socratic Approach to teaching, as Socratic Method is personal, intimate and an I-thou affair. As Kneller put it, “The existentialist favours the Socratic method, not so much because it involves ‘induction’ or the collection and analysis of all available evidence, nor because of its complementary process of ‘definition’, whereby general values are reached from particular instances; but chiefly because it is a method that tests the inner-life-as a stesthoscope sounds the heart.”38
2) Socratic ‘Problem Method’ should be accepted if the problem originates in the life of the one who has to work out the solutions. But it is unacceptable if the problem is derived from the needs of the society.
3) Like Socrates, ‘personal reading’ should be stressed.
4) They reject the group method, because in-group dynamic, the superiority of the group decision over individual decision is prominent. There is a danger of losing unique individualism and free choice.
5) Methods of teaching must develop the creative abilities in children. The world and man reveal themselves by their undertakings.
COUNSELLING AND EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) It is from the psychological interpretations of existential thought that counselling thinkers get much of their intellectual grounding.
2) Counselling have become an integral part of education and are playing an important role in helping young people to meet the challenge and to develop a positive view of ‘self’.
3) It insists that the aim of counselling in education is to promote maximum self-development by enhancing the individuals’ powers to choose for, and direct himself.
THE COUNSELLOR’S ROLE -:
1) The counsellor’s efforts are directed through towards helping each of the counsellors to formulate a set of unique beliefs and a way of practising them. He does not emphasize and ‘right’ values.
2) All learning aims are formulating the aspirations and desires of the unique individuals, so that he can understand himself and through this build up personal regard for others.
3) Counselling theory takes a dynamic view of personality. Each human being started with what he has by heredity and should continue to change and grow through experiences during his lifetime.
THE TEACHER AND EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) Existentialists do not wish the teacher to be social minded umpire or provider of free social activity (as the pragmatists want) or a model personality (as the Idealists say) to be limited, by the students. He must himself be a free personality, engaged in such relations and projects with individual students that they get the idea that they are too are free personalities.
2) He may indirectly influence them about his values but he should impose his cherished values on them, test his values become the code of conduct for the students, who may begin to accept them without thought. Instead of expecting them to imitate he should help them to be ‘original’ and ‘authentic’.
3) His effort should be that students’ mind should have autonomous functioning so that they become free, charitable and self-moving.
4) The role of teacher is very important because he is the creator of such as educational situation in which the student can establish contact with his self by becoming conscious of his self and can achieve self-realization.
5) It is the teacher who impresses up on the students to work hard and make the best of life and accept death as something inevitable but tell them that death can be gloomy as well as glorious. It is he who inculcates in the students the idea that a life lived lazily, selfishly or improperly is a life not worthy living. Dying for one’s country is glorious. So, the role of the teacher is very important.
6) The teacher must build positive relationships between himself and his students.
7) Teachers should avoid applying labels to children (such as ‘lazy’, ‘slow learner’ etc.) for individuals may indeed come to think of themselves this way.
8) The teacher is also changing and growing as he guides the pupil in his discovery of self.
THE CHILD AND THE EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) The existentialists want to give full freedom to the child. But the child should know the nature of his ‘self’ and recognise his being and convert imperfection into perfection.
2) They do not want the child to become selfish, autocratic and irresponsible. Freedom is needed only for natural development.
3) Education should be provided according to the child’s powers and the needs. The relation of the child with his ‘self’ should be strengthened rather than severed.
4) The child has to make ‘choices’ and decisions.
5) Child thrives better when relieved from intense competition, harsh discipline, and fear of failure. Thus each child can grow to understand his own needs and values and take charge of the experiences for changing him. In this way self-evaluation is the beginning and end of the learning process, as learning proceeds, child is freely growing, fearless, understanding individual.
6) Primary emphasis must always be on the child, as learner and not on the learning programme.
7) Child needs positive evaluation, not labels.
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND THE EXISTENTIALISM -:
1) The school should provide an atmosphere where the individuals develop in a healthy way.
2) Any subjectin school (even extra activities like athletics, music etc.) can present existential situations for teaching and the development of human beings.
3) The aim of school tasks should be to nurture self-discipline and cultivate self-evaluation.
4) Mass teaching and mass testing are not advocated in schools.
5) The schedule must be flexible and open.
6) Democratic ideals should pervade the school. Democracy must be the soil in which the individual grows. It should be the democracy of unique individuals who value differences and respect one another. Self-government, pupil participation in planning and the encouragement of a free atmosphere characterize the school.
7) Mechanization and impersonality should be counteracted in school. Students timetables and work programmes are computerized. And thus the relationships between the individual students and the school programme becomes an impersonal one. Besides this, the use of programmed instruction, teaching machines and other equipments tend to decrease the personal contact between teachers and pupils. This impersonality is a hazard to the individual development and growth of the child’s personality. Concern and respect for the individual student should be a feature of the school.
VALUE JUDGEMENT AND LIMITATION -:
1) After studying the philosophy of Existentialism, the question will arise in anybody’s mind : how can the aims, curricula and methods in a school depend upon the individual’s choice and freedom? Organization of such a programme would be impossible and bring about chaos.
2) The teacher’s individual relationship and close understanding of every pupil’s personality would require a great deal of time and effort.
3) The concepts of ‘Being’, ‘meaning’, ‘Person’ are not very clear and appear nebulous. It is not easy to build up an educational programme when the terminology for the objectives of the educational process are not clear.
4) Where there is child-rearing education and counselling practices are many the practices by which the child is socialized varies from one culture to another. If the emphasis in the culture is on mundane security and the value of world essence, then the individual may experience neurotic growth through the conflict between these unsuitable values and the person’s inner forces of creativity that continue to aspire for unique emergence and subjective expression. The extent to which a child is accepted or rejected, succeeds or fails, and develops satisfactorily of is retarded depends on the experiences and processes which explain the meaning of things (persons, objects, situations) in relation to the child’s being.
5) Educational standards and practices that manipulate the child’s behaviours in an arbitrary manner violate the principle of free choice.
6) Many teaching practices, testing procedures, and bureaucratic system of classifying children may be questioned.
7) Over structured public and parochical school systems enslave rather than liberate young souls. Such institutions serve a political rather than a truly educational purpose, promoting the manufacture of efficient robot rather than inspired, enlightened, and creative individuals. As a result various contemporary educational theories are radicalising the institutionalised structures of learning.
8) Teachers who have learned to provide existential encounters for their students enable the learners, “to create meanings in a cosmos devoid of objective meaning to find reasons for being in a society with fewer and fewer open doors.”
9) If the purpose of education is to build character, to optimise potential and creativity and to enhance the quality of life through knowledge, then from an existentialist perspective bureaucratisation needs to be replaced by humanization. That the existential goal is not being achieved today is illustrated by such evidence as that product in a study of students’ values indication that ‘American students predominantly seek to learn survival skills rather than to develop a social conscience, a situation contrary to an existentialist view of satisfactory development.’ ‘This crisis in education is not confined to the west but is observed in Eastern Cultures as well.’
10) In the realm of counselling existential intervention is conceptualised as “a conscioms attitudinal perspective toward rebuilding the impaired self’. The existential influences on counselling practices, though not fully acknowledged nor duly assessed, have been far-reaching.
Some form of existential intervention is employed by such a range of practioners as those using gestalt therapy, “antipsychiatry”, rational-emotive psychotherapy, psychodrama, transactional analysis communication and cognitive approaches, encounter groups, and reality therapy.
The existential view of development is not without its critics, many of whom view of theory and its practices as representing a neurotic, narcissistic philosophy of pain and anguish.
In contrast, existentialism’s protagonists see it as the only hope for human survival as in existentialism.
1) interest is directed on the ‘man’ – his genuine or authentic self, his choices made with full responsibility of consequences, and freedom.
2) It describes and diagnoses human weaknesses, limitations and conflicts.
3) It traces the origin of all these and anticipates that man will overcome them. These arise, they say when a man comes to have a sense of meaninglessness of his life.
4) They do not want man to be philistine (one whose interests are material and common place) or mediocre who submerges himself.
5) They want the ‘transcendence’ of man, which means that he should become more and more ‘authentic’.
6) Man cannot be explained by reason as the idealists emphasise.
7) Since existentialism is optimistic, the preaches the doctrine of action and emphasises the concept of freedom, responsibility and choice, it has exerted an increasing appeal to the educator, who has been shown the new horizons.
In short, Existentialism is an attitude and outlook that emphasises human existence, the qualities of individual persons rather than man in abstract of nature and the world in general. Education, therefore, must edify and enrich man’s mind so that it may be respectable in his own eyes and in the eyes of the, others. It should help him to make him human.
- Liverary, N.Y., 1958, p. 19.
- Jean Wahl : ‘A Short History of Existentialism’, phil. Library, N.Y, 1949, 30.
- Heidegger : ‘Existence and Being’, Vision press, London, 1949, p. 368.
- Seetharamu, A.S. : ‘Philosophy of Education’, 1989, New Delhi, S.B. Nagia, for Ashish Publishing House, 8/81, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi – 110 026, p. 79.
- Kenneth Richmond : ‘Socrates and the Western World’ – An Essay in the philosophy of Education, Alvin Redman (Ed.) London (1954), pp. 39-40, 46.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 80.
- Ralph Harper : ‘Existence and Recongnition’ in NSSE 54th Yearbook. ‘Modern Philosophies of Edcuation’, Part-I, University of Chicago press, Chicago, pp. 236-237.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 81.
- Kingston, F.T. : 1981 : ‘French Existentialism : A Christian Critique’, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, p. xii.
- Ruggeiro, : ‘Extistentialism’ (ed.) Happen Stall, Editor’s Introduction, p. 17, Seeker and Warburg, London, 1946.
- Blackham, H.J., 1953 : Six Existentialist Thinkers, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Macmillan Co., London, p. 150.
- Ibid, pp. 151-152.
- Harris, W.H. and Levey, J.S. (Eds.) 1975, The New Coumbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, New York, p. 911.
- Tiryakian, E.A., 1962 : Sociologism and Existentialism Two perspectives on the Industrial and Society, Percentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, p.77.
- Strinivasan, G. : “The Esixtentialists and Hindu Philosophical Systems,” Udayana Publications, Allahabad, 1967, p. 17.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 83.
- Sartre : “Existentialism”, The Philosophical Library, New York, 1952, p. 18.
- Heidegger : op.cit., ‘Being and Time’ is an exposition of this thesis, Seetharamu, op. cit., p. 85.
- Ibid,p. 31.
- Gureu Datt, K. : “Exitentialism and Indian Thought”, Phil.Lib., N.Y., 1960, p. 18.
- Gita, Chapter II, Gorakhpur Press, Gorakhpur.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 86.
- Gita, Chapter II, Canto 33, Gorakhpur Press, Gorakhpur.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 86.
- Sartre : “Of Human Freedom” (Ed.) W. Baskin, Phil.Lib., N.Y., 1966, p. 40.
- Grene, Marjorie : “Dreadful Freedom : A Critique of Existentialism”, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1948, p.25.
- Sartre : op. cit. (26), p. 95.
- Taneja, V.R. : “Socio-Philosophical Approach to Eduction”, 1987, New Delhi : Atalantic Publishers and Distributors, B-2, Vishal Enclave, Najafgarh Road, New Delhi-110027, p.256.
- Chaube, S.P. and Akhilesh : “Philosophical and Sociological Foundation of Education”, 1981 : Agra, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra-2, p.222.
- Ibid, p. 255.
- Butler, J.D. : “Four Philosophies and their practice in Education and Religion %, (3rd Ed.), Harper and Row, N.Y., 1968, p. 462.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 87.
- Kneller : op.cit., p. 122.
- Chaube, S.P. and Akhilesh : op. cit., p. 237.
- Taneja, V.R. : op. cit., p. 259.
- Seetharamu, A.S.: op.cit., p. 90.
- Ibid, p. 134.
- Green, M. : 1967, Existential Encounters for Teachers, Random House, New York, p.4.
- Chronide of Higher Education, 1982 : April, p.10.
- Mohan B.: 1972, India’s Social Problem, Indian International Publications, Allahabad.
- Mohan B. : 1979 : Conceptualization of Exitential Intervention, Psychol : Q.J. Hum. Behav. 16 (3) : 39-45.
Business accounting is the recording, recognizing and communicating the economic or financial scenarios of an organization. The accountant or business professional needs to record and analyze the given economic scenario of the respective organizations and then communicate the data forward to the respected team.
The accountants of an organization have to keep a close record on the financial situation, or the transactions made by an organization and even the salary payouts. They maintain the records and files for further use.
But to keep a track of such a huge amount of data, one needs to be an expert and most definitely acquire right knowledge of the software for maintaining the records. The accountants use bookkeeping techniques to preserve the data of the organization.
Business accounting training will help the candidate in understanding software and other concepts that will make their work very simpler, and at the same time, will reduce the risk of losing any kind of important data. For an organization, it is important to keep their financial records in place to avoid any kind of legal or formal discrepancy in the near future.
Why Business Accounting Training?
As we know that business accounting requires recording, recognizing and then further communicating the economical situation of an organization to the respected group of people. For this to take place in a proper manner, business professionals take up the course of Business Accounting to enhance their bookkeeping skills and learn the tricks and abilities of the softwares that will make the work simpler for them.
Business Accounting Training will also assist the candidate to learn the required formats that are needed to manage the accounts and taxations of a company. It is evident that these matters are the most sensitive matters and the organization needs to take extra precautions while dealing with them.
What is included?
The course involves training and management of the financial data. The candidate will be trained in a software which is known as ‘QuickBooks’. The software is considered ideal for Business Accounting Training
The course will include the following:
- Finance and Accounts basics
- Introduction to Finance and Accounts
- Reviewing Accounts Concept
- Accounting for Stock
- Accounting for Fixed Assets
- Journal Entries
- Payroll Management
- Financial and Auditing
- Cash and Credit Management
- Getting Started with QuickBooks
- Bookkeeping and Billing in QuickBooks
- Creating and Managing Invoices
At the end of the course, there will be a test conducted to evaluate the candidate on the basis of what has been learned throughout the training period. After the completion of course, the candidate will be able to make accurate journal entries, perform the monetary transactions of the firm without any errors, make right balance sheets and financial statements by calculating all the taxes, excise and customs, import and exports, wages and salaries, etc. He or she will also master the skills of MS excel which is incredibly necessary to record, research and transact company data.
This course is very suitable for the candidates who are focused and are seeking a promising career in the fields of accounting. This course will enhance their chances to secure a good job in the field of accounting.
This course best suits the candidates who wish to become:
- Chartered Accountants
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The course will make you confident about the type of job that you are about to take up and will help you crack your interviews in a one go. But make sure you choose a right institute for the training course as there are several cheap and ordinary ones out there who only claims to provide the most competitive material, but fails to help the candidate reach their full potential. Hence, do a systematic research and find the most suitable and recognized institute with experienced and trained instructors. The course fee of such institute may be a little on a higher side, but it will be worth of every penny you spend.
SLA Consultants India is a home for candidates who are willing to make a promising career in the fields of accounting. With a highly regarded and respected teachers along with outstanding infrastructure, SLA is certainly the best Business Accounting Training Institute you should choose.
With each new grade, your child will start to see more school work and projects assigned. In Kindergarten Programs, kids are less burdened by homework, but when they begin elementary schools, schoolwork becomes more important and routine. Homework will be assigned more frequently, which will require more of your child’s attention after school. And though the transition may seem like a lot at first, with your help, your child can create a plan to develop time management, stay on task and earn good grades.
Show an Interest
Show you care about your child’s education by asking questions about classwork and activities for that day. Repetition is an important part of memory. Describing what they learned that day will give your child a chance to test how well they remember the information. It will also give you the opportunity to assess what your child finds interesting about their classes and where they may need help.
Establish a Homework Routine
A set homework routine is an effective way to make sure your child gets their homework done on time. You can establish a routine by first sitting with your child and going over the teacher’s homework policy. Being familiar with the guidelines and expectations of your child’s classes will give you an estimation about the amount of time of homework and other schoolwork should take to complete.
Keep a Positive Attitude
All children learn differently. When a child struggles with a particular course or lesson, it’s understandable for them to grow frustrated. What’s more, it can take time for the importance of certain lessons to become clear to a child, which makes a difficult, unenjoyable task seem pointless. It may take hours for your child to pick up on long division or grammar lessons, it may take weeks or months. What’s guaranteed, is that when they receive consistent encouragement and positive reinforcement, they’re more likely to make the necessary effort to learn and comprehend their classwork.
Help, but avoid doing the Work
When you complete your child’s homework, it sends the wrong message. It states that your child should wait for you rather than figuring out a problem themselves. Completing their work for them can also communicate that you don’t trust them to finish it on their own. If your child comes to you with a question, try explaining it as best you can, but stop short of giving them the answers. Set guidelines for them to follow, such as checking two to three resources before asking you. Encourage them to find answers in their textbook, a dictionary, glossary and homework help websites. It’s very important for your child to rely on their own abilities to solve problems However, if your child continues to struggle with a particular topic, it may be necessary you speak with their teacher.
Let the Teacher Know if there is a Problem
Sometimes, a child needs extra help completing his homework that you can’t provide. If this happens, their teacher should be informed about the problem. Send them an email or call during designated hours to explain the situation and to ask them to reexplain the lesson to your child. Let your child know they will need to ask the teacher for help in the future. Getting your child to speak with their teacher when they run into issues with their schoolwork will teach them a valuable habit. But no matter how difficult they find their work, your encouragement will always be important to their overall success. Remind them of the value of their education and talk to them about their future. If you give your child reasons to believe in themselves, they’re likely to find more.
Teach your Child to try his Best
Your child may ask for help constantly when completing his homework, you should motivate him to find answers to his queries on his own. Teach your kid to try at least two or three resources before asking you. Encourage him to find answers in their textbook, a dictionary, glossary and homework help websites.
The Arrow Montessori school is well-respected elementary school in San Dimas, offering a number of educational programs for children. These programs include infant & toddler daycare, preschool – kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, before and after school care, summer school and student exchange visa program
CURBING MORAL DECADENCE IN THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR: YOUTHS INVOLVEMENT.
What is Moral? And what is Decadence?
Moral can be defined as giving guidance on how to behave decently and honestly. It can also be seen as relating to issues of right and wrong and to how individuals should
behave. It can be seen as something ethical, good, right, proper, honourable, just, principled etc.
Decadence means the process of decline or decay in a society especially in its morals. It’s also a state of immorality, corruption, debauchery, dissolution, self indulgence, profligacy, excess etc.(Micro soft Student Encarta 2008.)
From the above definitions of moral and decadence, we can easily say what moral decadence is all about.
Moral decadence is decline, decay and profligate in the moral values of individuals and society at large. It is the decay in the ethical values and norms that govern an individual and the society at large. A society where there is decline in moral values, what is wrong becomes right, what society should abhor becomes what they uphold.
Therefore relating this to the educational sector, our educational sector has been beclouded with immoral acts (moral decadence). What is said to be ivory tower or citadel of learning has been turned in to a breeding ground for hoodlums, rapist, prostitute, etc. The educational system is losing its moral and social values. The big question is who is responsible for all these immorality? What is the root cause of these social vices? What can possibly be done to curb these ugly vices in our educational system? All these and more will be deliberated in this chapter.
Types of Moral Decadence.
- Examination Malpractices.
- Indecent dressing.
- Teenage Pregnancy.
- Student Prostitution.
- Sexual harassment.
- Sales of “Grade”.
- Student Demonstration etc.
We will briefly discuss on the causes of some of these listed above.
Cultism/ Secret Cult.
According to Denga(1991),cultism is a system of religious belief and practice or an ideology. Orukpe (1988) defined secret cult as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar secret beliefs divulge only to members. In addition their initiation procedures often involves secret rituals like swearing by deity, human blood and other procedures which send shivers down the spines of most people.
Origin of Cultism/ Secret Cult.
The origin of secret cult could be traced back in 1953 in Nigeria tertiary institution-University college, Ibadan now known as university of Ibadan(UI).It was formed by Nigeria’s only Nobel laureate , Prof. Wole Soyinka.Their main objectives include:
- To abolish conventions.
- To revive the age chivalry.
- To end tribalism and elitism.
Their ideas were both patriotic and altruistic as it was not imagined as a secret cult, but simply known as the Pyrate confraternity or the National Association of sea dogs.
Common examples of Secret Cult in our Institutions.
According to Nwadike (2003) there are about 45 secret cults in Nigeria institutions of learning, and all are equipped with an elaborate hierarchy, insignia and distinct attire. Some of the most notable of these secret cults group include:
- Sea Dogs.
- Black Axe.
- Daughters of Jezebel.
- White Angels.
- Black Brassiers.
Causes of Cultism/Secrete Cult among the youths/students.
- To gain recognition and popularity.
- Lack of proper upbringing by their parents.
- Bad association or company.
- Fear of the Unknown-To fail exam, not being intimated by others, lovers rejection.
- Broken Home. Etc
Effects of Secret Cult.
1. It leads to rustication or expulsion of both innocent and guilty students.
2. It leads to outburst of violence on campus which leaves many students wounded, maimed or killed as the case may be.
3. It leads to loss and lack of confidence to the affected students or group.
4. The affected live a life of regrets and pains.
5. Relationship with students, loved ones, parents become bitter, unfriendly or soiled.
6. Leads to armed robbery.
7. Lack of focus in all spheres of life.
8. Not being useful to the society.
9. Relationship with God becomes soiled.etc
Curbing Cultism in our Institutions: The roles of the youths.
Since we have identified the origin, causes and effects of cultism in our higher institutions of learning, how can this menace be curb through our youth’s involvement? Some of the workable solutions are as follows:
1. The youth should be properly counseled on peer group relationship.
2. Proper moral upbringing of children and wards by parent should be paramount.
3. Any act of intimidation by cultist should be reported to school authority/school security.
4. There should be improved facilities and living conditions on campuses.
5. Youth should have detailed knowledge of the word of God and its Application.
6. School authority should disassociated themselves from sponsoring cultist in order to achieve their selfish aims or desires like being the VC, HOD, DEAN, etc.
7. Youth should involve in aggressive campaign against cultism.
8. The study of guidance and counseling should be imperative in the school curriculum.
9. Students should be engaged in extra curricular activities; this will help to keep them busy and makes them become useful.
10. Youth should develop moral courage to say NO when such offer comes
11. Always have a positive mind set.etc
Since cultism has no positive moral upbringing, benefits or development, let’s shun cultism in all totality.
A drug is a substance of biological or chemical origin when applied to a living tissue produces an effect. Drugs include what are commonly called medicine.
Therefore drug abuse refers to the use, especially by self –administration of any drug in a manner that deviates from an approved medical or social pattern within a given culture. It is the abnormal use of drugs. Some of the noted illicit substances as drug abuse are: opiods, heroine, marijuana (Indian hemp), phenol barbitone, valium, cocaine, alcohol etc
Forms of Drug Abuse.
- Drug abuse through ignorance.
- Deliberate drug abuse.
- Drug abuse for pleasure.
- Drug abuse from curiosity.
- Incorrect drug dosage.
Kinds of Illicit Drugs.
- Cannabiniods e.g. hashish, marijuana.
- Depressants e.g. barbiturates, benzodiazepines, methaqualone.
- Club Drugs e.g methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Gama-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol kelamine.
- Hallucinogens e.g lysergic acid, diethylamide (LSD), Phencyclidine (PCP), Mescaline and psilocybin.
- Opiods e.g codeine, fentanyl, heroin, morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone.
- Stimulants e.g. nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines.
- Inhalants e.g glue, gasoline, aerosol spray, paint thinner.
Causes of Drug Abuse.
- Social factor e.g. peer groups influence.
- Parental factor e.g. lack of parental guidance, monitoring and control. Improper upbringing, broken home.
- Economical Factor e.g poverty, unemployment and underemployment.
- Psychological factor e.g. recognition, to belong and cheap popularity.
- Genetic factor e.g. families that are into drug abuse tend to influence others.
Symptoms of Drug Abuse among Youths/Students.
- Change in activities e.g not doing home work, sport or spending time with new friends.
- Behavioral Changes e.g. aggression, irritability, forgetfulness.
- Financial changes e.g request for money that cannot be explained, or disappearing money or valuables.
- Risky behavior e.g drinking and driving or having unprotected sex.
- Legal trouble eg getting arrested or always in police net.
- Changes in appearance e.g being dirty.
Effects of Drug Abuse.
- Leads to madness in most cases if not properly handled.
- Loss of sensory perception
- Loss of appetite
- Low retentive memory.
- Leads to criminal acts e.g. stealing ,murdering, robbery etc
- Soiled relationship with God.
- The person academics/ education suffer.
- Always aggressive even when nothing offends him.
- Loses recognition and respects.etc
Preventive Measures: Youths Involvement.
1. Youths should involve in serious campaign against drug abuse.
2. Avoid risky situation or places eg parties or clubs or unsafe gathering of people.
3. Youths should develop the habit of being patient.
4. Seek help incase of mental disorder.
5. Parent should strengthen their relationship with their children.
6. Parents should set good example by not abusing drugs.
7. Youths should be open to their parents or guidance.
8. Youths should be properly guided in school and at home.
9. Youths should have priorities in life.
10. Study and apply the word of God in your daily living.etc
“Why do you choose to destroy your future when God has prepared and given you a blissful future.”
Our higher institutions of learning have been beclouded with indecent dressing most especially the female students. Most girls go bare, displaying their navels and boobs and wearing what just ample cleavages on display, depicting size and shape of their private parts with mini that barely skim the bottom. It appears now to be fashionable; one has to become half nude, dressed in sleeveless/see-through tops without bra.
From the above description of indecent dressing, what then is indecent dressing? Indecent dressing is act of dressing contrarily or indecently to a normal dressing code. From Africa perspective, I believe every culture has its dressing code. Though the dressing code might vary from one culture to another but each culture has a standard and acceptable dressing code. So any deviation from such dressing code could be term as indecent dressing.
Kinds of Indecent Dressing.
1. Mini and Micro mini skirt.
2. Handless Tops.
3. See-Through Tops.
4. Breast exposure Tops.
5. Pants exposure Trousers.
7. Navel exposure tops.
8. Pant-Free skirts.etc
Causes of Indecent Dressing.
- Bad association or company.
- Wrong use of internet.
- Want to be recognized and be popular.
- To seduce the opposite sex either in school or outside the school.
- Lack of basic knowledge on dressing code.
Effects of Indecent Dressing.
- Fall a victim of sexual harassment.
- Fall a victim of rituals.
- Lack of concentration in their studies.
- Might lead the person to steal.
- Develop the habit of telling lies.
- Have soiled relationship with God and other decent relations.
Control Measures: Youths Involvement.
1. Youth should be contented with what they have.
2. Youth should be involved in campaign against indecent dressing.
3. Report to the school authority in case of any one that tries to lure you into such act.
4. Parent should be a very good role model.
5. Dressing code should be introduced into the higher institutions of learning.
6. Religious organization should stand firmly and preach against it.etc.
7. The legislators should make provision for such in our constitution.
SEXUAL PROMISCUITY/ PROSTITUTION.
This is an act of involving oneself in illicit sexual intercourse or relationship with an opposite sex, either for money making or for pleasures. The act of sexual promiscuity or prostitution is most common with our female students .In most higher institutions of learning, such act has become a money-making business to the female students. They could also use such act to get what they want on campus. Most students hostels and quarters have been turned into brothel.
Students who for the first time gained some social freedom from their parents watchful eyes and guidance easily fall prey to the temptation of eating the “forbidden fruit”. Some of them become so wild on the illicit love making that they give most of their time and attention to it to the detriment of their studies. They become so much engaged in NOCTURNAL activities that they sleep through out the daytime in hostels or during lectures for those who want to register their presence in classes. Some other one will completely abandon their lectures to keep appointment with their boy friends or “sugar daddies”.
Causes of Sexual Promiscuity/Prostitution.
- Economic factor eg poverty, unemployment underemployment, high cost of living etc.
- Parental Factor eg most parent encourage their wards to involve in such illicit act. Lack of parental care, counseling and control.
- Social factor eg bad company, decadence in the social values of the society.
- Lack of sex education at home and in schools.
- Intimidation by lecturers/teachers and fellow students.
- Students in quest of higher grade or to pass an examination. Etc.
Effects of Sexual Promiscuity/ Prostitution.
- Loss of social values among students and peers.
- Leads to unwanted pregnancy.
- Leads to pre mature death-incase of aborting the baby.
- Become prone to ritual.
- Poor performance in class.
- Fall a victim of accident.
- Can lead to barrenness as a result of chains of abortion.
- Soiled your relationship with God.
- Become a reproach to the society. etc.
Control Measures : Youths Involvement.
1. Have the moral courage to say NO, either from fellow students or lecturers/ teachers.
2. Escalate it to the higher authority in case of intimidation by lecturers/teachers or fellow students.
3. Know that your basic priority in school as a student is your education.
4. Avoid bad peers.
5. Parent should teach their wards sex education before exposing them to the four-walls of education.
6. The school authority with out prejudice or biasness should deal severely with offender.
7. Parent should be a role model; they lead and live by example.
8. Study the word of God and always apply it in all you do.
9. Always have/develop a positive mind-set in what ever you are doing. Etc.
Examination Malpractice is any act of omission or commission, which compromises the validity and integrity of any examination.-(Ministry of Education, Benue State 2001).It is acting or going contrarily to the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of examinations. Examination which is said to be the true test of knowledge has lost its values as some student can get into any higher institutions with out written or oral examination. In fact this has really become a hard nut to crack among various examination bodies.
Brief Histroy/ Origin of Examination Malpractices.
The problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria seems to be as old as the introduction of formal system of education (Afigbo 1993).The first major Examination Malpractice was in 1914, when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This scenario took an unprecedented surge in 1963 when two public examinations of 1967, 1977, 1981 and 1987 leaked. These leakages then attracted the attention of the federal government, which led to the promulgation of decree 27 of 1973, and miscellaneous decree 20 of 1984 to curb examination malpractices and the latter decree prescribed 21 years jail term for offenders.
Causes of Examination Malpractices.
Experts have identified the following as the causes of examination malpractices:
- Inadequate qualified teachers.
- Inadequate teaching and learning facilities.
- Parental contribution.
- Over population of students in a school.
- Non completion of syllabus before examination.
- Immorality in wider society.
- Inadequate supervision of teachers by inspectors.
- Absence of guidance and counseling services in school.
- Constant closure of schools e.g teachers’ strike or student demonstration.
- Non provision of extra curricula activities.
- Emphasis on paper qualification or certificate.
- Students involvement in cultism, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity and truancy.
Agents of Examination Malpractices.
The following are the perpetrators of examination malpractices:
- Parent/Guardians who buy exams papers or bribe the examiner on behalf of their wards.
- Teachers/Head Teacher, those who collect money from the students to “settle” the invigilators.
- Lazy Students.
- Examiners/External Invigilators.
- The Printer of the exam papers.
- Government Officials.
- Examination Bodies. etc
Forms of Examination Malpractices.
The various forms of examination malpractices are as follows:
- External Assistance.
- Smuggling of foreign materials.
- Substitution of script.
- Ghost Centers.
- Marker malpractice.
- Awards and Certificates.
- Use of technological devices. Eg Hand set.
- Use of body parts.
- Signs and symbols. etc
Effects of Examination Malpractices.
The effects of examination malpractices are so enormous. Some of these are as follows:
1. It destroys the zeal to read.
2. Leads to churning out of half-baked graduates.
3. Makes the examination bodies not to be the true test of knowledge.
4. Makes it difficult for our students to study abroad, reason being that the western countries have lost confidence in our educational system.
5. Loss of confidence in the affected students.
6. It leads to sabotage on the economic values of a country.
7. Soils your relationship with God and others.
8. Some loss their lives while traveling to special centre for examination.
9.Brings disrespect between the students and the teachers/lecturers.etc.
Control Measures : Youths Involvement.
- Students/Youths should be able to have the moral courage to pin point any culprit that indulges in such act.
- Reading culture should be imbibed among the students. Though reading might be a little bit strenuous but its very interest. The more you read the more knowledgeable you become.
- Parents should live up to their integrity. Because any foundation you lay in a child is what he/she grows and go with.
- Youths should avoid being lazy. Be up and doing with your academics.
- Students should always think of a better tomorrow-that is devoid of all kinds of corruption. Remember that corruption is a cankerworm that renders the entire system useless.
- Students should involve themselves in extral mural classes. Classes /Lesson you attend after school hour is an added advantage. It makes you to be ahead of others.
- Know that the most precious gift that money can not buy is integrity. Keep you integrity!!!
- 30-50% should be deducted from any student involved in exam malpractices.
- Disqualify any student involved from taking exam during the current year and coming year.
- Government should live up their responsibilities. There should be no sacred cow for any culprit irrespective of his class or position.
- Qualified and competent teachers should be recruited.
- Education should be taken as a priority by the government and other stake holders. Education should be seen as a pillar and beacon of truth of any nation.
- Examination bodies should be overhauled. The “bad eggs” should be fished out of the system, if not it might as well cause other eggs to rotten.
- Examination bodies should partner with other integrity institutes that have proven and tested reputation. These institutes will help in examination supervision. The good news about these institutes is that most of them are NGOs that will require little or nothing to do the job.
- Schools involved in exam malpractices should be suspended from taken any form of exams for 5 years. The head of schools/Proprietors and proprietress should be informed.
- The Ministry of education should sanction teacher(s) that are involved in examination malpractices. The ministry could hold his/her salary for a year or suspend him.
- “Special centers”, “wonderful centers” as the implies should be put to stop. The examination bodies should have nothing to do with such centers. Etc
The general increase in the social vices among students of all levels of educational system is alarming. Though this article centers on the role of the youths in curbing this ugly monster (moral decadence), but the truth still remains that all hands must be on deck if this situation is to be dealt with. The wealth of this nation lies in our vibrant youths. These youths when fully given the right mind set and right environment will reposition this nation. As we all know that education is the backbone of any nation, our educational system should not be allow to decay. It’s possible to have a better Educational system.
Ministry of education, Benue State 2001. “How to excel in examination and be free from cult.Makurdi, Nigeria. Ministry of education publication.
Denga D.I 1991 “Nigerian Education system. Proposal for a smooth voyage to the year 2000 and beyond.
Falling out of favour in recent years, home schooling used to be considered a great way to monitor and enhance your child’s intellectual development. Theories about poor social development and emotional exposure led to a downturn in the frequency of home schooling, despite the numerous educational advantages it can bring. By nurturing your child within the home environment, learning and education can seem more of a natural process, whereby your child gains the skills and knowledge required during the course of his daily life. In this article we will consider further some of the advantages of educating your child in your home, and why this form of education may be considered superior to traditional schooling.
One of the major advantages that comes with home schooling is the ability to tailor education to the needs and stage of development of the child. In the classroom, there is little in the way of individualised tuition and bonding for most of the children with the authority figure, which can stint and hinder development. Of course the child is exposed to a more social environment, which is certainly beneficial. The problem comes with the lack of direct tailored tuition, which can repress a child’s intellectual potential. Secondly, regular schooling cannot move at the same pace, nor can it move at the pace required for the student. A class of pupils can only move as quickly as the slowest pupils, which leaves many more developed students bored and lacking intellectual stimulation. With home schooling, on the other hand, the parent or teacher is free to move at the pace of the child, and can devote one hundred percent of his or her attention to the intellectual needs of the child concerned, making for an overall more productive environment for the child.
Another advantage of home schooling is that it is more flexible than traditional schooling, catering for the needs of the child concerned rather than the general needs of a class of children. If the child has particular difficulties in any given area, these can be sourced and assisted promptly, without having the burden of thirty other pupils to worry about. By allowing the teacher to focus on teaching the pupil at his own pace, home schooling creates a more flexible environment for intellectual development, which can provide the child with a greater understanding of reason and logic, as well as the basics of elementary arithmetic and literacy.
Home schooling seems to be losing popularity in recent years, despite the fact that it still provides much academic and intellectual merit. Children educated in the home environment tend to be more attuned to life-long learning, considering knowledge and information as important assets. Indeed, this form of education allows the child to develop at his own pace where this may otherwise be restricted within the classroom environment. For these reasons, the process of home schooling is particularly worthwhile, and something that should be a consideration of parent everywhere, with the means and ability to educate their own children.
Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families and communities in attaining, re-attaining and maintaining optimal health and functioning. Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life as defined by persons and families, throughout their life experiences from birth to care at the end of life.
In pre-modern times, nuns and the military often provided nursing services. The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today. For example, in Britain, senior female nurses are known as “Sisters”. In recent times in the US and Canada many nurses are flowing back into working in a “religious” field through “Parish Nursing”. These nurses work within a church community to perform health education, counseling, provide referrals to community support agencies, and connect volunteers from the church community with those in need of assistance.
Nurses acknowledge that the nursing profession is an essential part of the society from which it has grown. The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. The practice of nursing involves altruistic behavior, is guided by nursing research and is governed by a code of ethics.
Nursing continues to develop a wide body of knowledge and associated skills. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse but all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice and training in clinical skills.
In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law and entrance to the profession is regulated by national, state, or territorial boards of nursing.
The American Nurses’ Association (1980) has defined nursing as “the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.” Just as medical diagnoses help in the planning, implementing, and evaluation of medical care, Nursing diagnoses help in the planning, implementing, and evaluation of nursing care.
Like other maturing disciplines, nursing has developed different theories that are aligned with diverging philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews. Nursing theories help nurses to direct their activities in order to accomplish specific goals with people. Nursing is a knowledge based discipline committed to the betterment of humankind. Nursing has not only developed into a profession, but an art as well.
Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions. It is a universal role appearing in some form in every culture.
Nursing may be divided into different specialties or classifications. In the U.S., there are a large number of specialties within nursing. Professional organizations or certifying boards issue voluntary certification in many of these areas.
These specialties encompass care throughout the human lifespan based upon patient needs. Many nurses who choose a specialty become certified in that area, signifying that they possess expert knowledge of the specialty. There are over 200 nursing specialties and sub-specialties. Certified nurses often earn a salary differential over their non-certified colleagues, and studies from the Institute of Medicine have demonstrated that specialty certified nurses have higher rates of patient satisfaction, as well as lower rates of work-related errors in patient care.
Nurses practice in a wide range of settings from hospitals to visiting people in their homes and caring for them in schools to research in pharmaceutical companies. Nurses work in occupational health settings (also called industrial health settings), free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-run clinics, long-term care facilities, and camps. Nurses work on cruise ships and in military service. They act as advisors and consultants to the healthcare and insurance industries. Some nurses are attorneys and others work with attorneys as legal nurse consultants, reviewing patient records to assure that adequate care was provided and testifying in court. In many cities, nurses can even enter their names in a “registry” and work a wide variety of temporary jobs.
In the modern world, there are a large number of specialities within nursing:
Ambulatory care nursing
Advanced practice nursing
Behavioral health nursing
Cardiac catheter laboratory nursing
Clinical nurse specialist
Clinical research nurse
Community health nursing
Critical care nursing
Developmental disabilities nursing
Environmental Health nursing
Hematology oncology nursing
Home health nursing
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Nursing
Intavenous therapy nursing
Infectious disease nursing
Legal Nurse Investigator
Military and uniformed services nursing, including Public Health Service
Obstetrics gynecology nursing
Occupational health nursing
Operating room nursing
Pain management and palliative care nursing
Plastic and reconstructive surgical nursing
Private duty nursing
Psychiatric or mental health nursing
Renal dialysis nursing
Substance abuse nursing
Telephone triage nursing
Professional organizations or certifying boards issue voluntary certification in many of these specialties.
Nursing assistant skills are the set of learned tasks used in helping residents or patients with activities of daily living (ADLs) and providing bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—under the supervision of a Registered Nurse (RN) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN).
In today’s hospitals and extended care facillities a nurse assistant is an important part of a healthcare team that includes many personnel outside of nurses. In the quest to make a profit from providing care many hospitals in the United States have reduced their nurse to patient ratios, requiring one nurse to take care of as many as twelve or fourteen patients at a time. In order for good care to be provided to those patients a nurse assistant is needed to provide the routine care so that the nurse can focus on tasks only he/she can do, such as care plans, nursing assessments, administering medication, and assist in surgery room preparation. The nurse assistant must not only be very skilled in the actual procedures being performed but must also be able to make quick observations of a patient’s condition and report that information back to the nurse. Since the nurse cannot spend large amounts of time in the room with the patient, the nurse assistant is known as the nurse’s “eyes and ears”.
A nurse assistant must also have a strong grasp of emergency procedures and be able to stay calm in stressful situations. They must be able to initiate a Code Blue and be well-drilled in CPR.
Top Australian universities have a very easy and carefree ambiance as acknowledged by many overseas immigrants who study in Australia. The beach and rural side are always in close affinity and this ensures that there is more outdoor activity. Students love the wonderful and thrilling activities such as surfing, kite surfing, diving, beach barbecues, and mountain biking.
Australia has the distinction of being the third largest international destination for students from across the globe. More than 3 million students arrive to study in Australia every year. Overseas students from more than 56 nations visit Australia for their studies and career prospects.
Universities in Australia offer a unique educational experience to the students and their degrees are renowned all over the world. CEO’s of international corporations such as MC Donalds, Coco cola and Ford have been students of Australian universities and their success stories have influenced many overseas students to apply for the student visa in Australia.
Overseas immigrants who study in Australia find that its universities offer exceptional education and the degrees awarded by them are recognized well in the current international job market. The applicants of a student visa to Australia will discover that the student life in Australia is a truly international experience. They not only receive a global class education but are also easily accepted by the warm and forthcoming Australians.
The population of Australia has a considerable strength of overseas immigrants who are not natives and this cultural diversity is the strength of Australia as a nation. The nation with friendly and kind citizens has English as the language for communication. Australian universities are a shelter to students’ communities from diverse cultures.
Overseas immigrants are encouraged to apply for student visa to Australia as they find that the cost of living is relatively lower in Australia when compared to other nations such as the US and the UK.
The highly experienced and skilled faculty members who are accessible with ease and equally helpful supporting staff make the experience a cherished one for the students. The low strength of classes and contact classes with more duration ensure that the students get a quality experience for the investment made for the study visa Australia.
The teaching methodology of Australia is focused on informal ways and this helps to keep up the enthusiasm and interest of students, which is hard to find in the conventional teaching methods. A student in a top university in Australia receives the similar experience and treatment as a student in the US University of Ivy league. The universities in Australia are highly respected across the global leagues.
Compared to the other universities in the world, Australia has a flexible degree course. It is not binding on students who apply for student visa Australia to confine themselves to one stream all the way in their course. Similar to the universities in the US, Australian universities give a diverse range of choices in the first year before a student can streamline to a subject in the later years.
Australian universities have a comprehensive and open process of application for the student visa in Australia. The academic year in Australia lasts from February to November and is divided into two semesters. The first semester lasts from February to June while the second semester lasts from July to November. The summer vacation that is of two months duration gives the students the opportunity to visit their homes and spend time with their families and friends.
The Amazines quoted the experience of Anuj Nair, an Indian immigrant with student visa in Australia at the University of Sydney pursuing his Economics masters degree. He says that he is fascinated by the lifestyle in Australia. According to Anuj, Sydney is an amazing city where he found very great friends. The attitude of Australians towards life is peaceful though they are very hard workers.
During the vacations, he traveled to places such as Lombok and Bali along with his classmates. The stay at the campus was very easy going and many students from India were his companions. Anuj says that the life and experience in Sydney have motivated him to plan a career in international business. The overseas study at Australia has given him autonomy and self-reliance, added Nair.